Sociology Chapter 7 and 8
Sociology Chapter 7 and 8 SOCI 2010
Popular in Foundations of Sociology
Popular in Sociology
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 2010 at Tulane University taught by David Maddox in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Sociology in Sociology at Tulane University.
Reviews for Sociology Chapter 7 and 8
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/19/15
Chapter 7 power and politics Power the capacity to bring about some desired outcome Collective power to achieve shared goals Positive power serves other interests Agenda setting the act of consciously unconsciously averting the challenge of potential issues the more powerful would rather avoid The state sociologically refers to 3 branches of government and the bureaucracies Power has three dimensions 1 2 Someone prevails over someone else in a con ict 0 Directly visible Those with power prevent de ect challenges to authority in the rst place 0 Less visible No direct con ict Stopped before it starts 0 Agenda setting 0 Problem with agenda setting is the grievances of excludedmarginalized can be denied a hearing Ex kids may want more of families budget to be spent on candy over veggies but they don t have a say because parents control agenda Those with power are able to convince those without power that their views should be accepted as correct Propaganda 0 Get people to believe what you want is in their best interests State regulations Laws that prevent large corporations from taking advantage of their size to cut deal and drive out competition Stock Marketer can t use insider knowledge Can t falsely advertise Minimal standards in safety 3rd party individual harmed by a company must be compensated How states impact who gest what States set the rules of the game pick who is favored by laws big business v small business Allocate where funding is spent welfare States decide who pays for public spending programs States can decide whether to go to war if the death penalty is legal and if those who cant afford food and healthcare should be supplied it Why do states adopt policies in interests of the powerful Business con dence theory block 0 Whatever the preference of government official the state has a powerful incentive to make sure that big business interest have con dence and security 0 They need to make investments that will create jobs and produce economic growth 0 States are driven to adopt policies that will convince business leaders that the economy will remain healthy 2nol theory 0 Large corporations and rich people have more resources to in uence political life The have people lobbying for their causes interest Taxes US has progressive income tax 0 But tax burdens on high earners has decreased dramatically in past 30 years They can afford to pay lawyers to nd loopholes Public policy for social problems has decreased Low funding compared to other similar nations Britain Who sets agenda American 2 part system 0 Extremely hard for a candidate outside of these two parties to get elected or to voice their grievances o The large amounts of money donated to candidates for of ce Takes a lot of money to run a campaign Those with money to donate can back the candidates that they want to win 0 2 party system limits discussion If there were more parties it would be less likely for one party to hold the majority 0 Parties would HAVE to work together Chapter 8 Markets organizations and work Traditional selfemployment an activity dominated by small shopkeepers restaurateurs and craftsmen Market any exchange of goods and services Central planning government decides what is sold and the cost socialist Capitalism an economy based on private property and exchange Entrepreneurs people who start of invest in new businesses Rationalchoice perspective everyone wants to be better off demand determines market price Organizations group engaged in a speci c activity that has a speci c purpose or goal Loose coupling decentralizes decisionmaking and permits multiple approaches within organizations to emerge Occupation jobs that require special training and that individual may perform over and entire career Labor process most occupations are performed inside organizations and controlled by supervisors and managers Scienti c management managers need to understand what workers are doing Don t allow workers a say on how something should be done Traditional self employment is decreasing but two types of self employment are increasing Professional freelancer consultant Artist writer 0 Value independence and exibility lnformalmarginal income child care and day labor Markets are the foundation of economic life Originally in America there was a debate for whether the socialist central planning system or the capitalist system was better 0 Today people do not see central planning as a viable alternative Markets have had an increasing in uence over peoples personal lives 0 House cleaning maintenance 0 Child care 0 Nameologist help choose baby names 0 Dating sites match makers Markets are important for organizing social behavior 0 Sociological view of markets part of repeated interactions that people carry out according to formal and informal rules Large powerful rms can manipulate processes in their favor Social networks are important for the ways they spread information related to markets Knowing howwhenwhat is appropriate in different contexts Organizations and bureaucracies Once established organizations tend to persist Organizations tend to develop into bureaucracies o Bureaucracies Hierarchically organized Written rules Full time salaried positions Bureaucratic of cials are self interested Loose coupling 0 Overall objectives cant be properly implemented Organizations compete to ll a niche and that is why they tend to persist 0 Organizational isomorphism Organizations in the same eld tend to become increasingly similar to each other over time o Coercive isomorphism Organizations compelled to take the same action to avoid facing consequences that might include being sued o Normative isomorphism Responding to positive and negative expectations 0 Mimetic isomorphism Looking at what other organizations are doing and doing something similar Occupations When college acceptances expanded jobs in professional careers expanded 0 Le Business execs managers lawyers accountants professors teachers Labor process 0 Study of labor process tries to open the workplace examines how workers to jobs how they are controlled and the relationships between the two Hawthorne study 0 Found cooperation between workers increased productivity Scienti c management 0 Managers control decisions and keep workers focused on precise tasks Assembly line 0 Deskilling simpli ed jobs make workers increasingly interchangeable and replaceable Unions 0 Labor organizations to protect the work force Lean production constantly reduce cost of productions o Decreasing salaries
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'