Child Development Chapter 3
Child Development Chapter 3 PSYC 333
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One Day of Notes
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This 9 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Baylee Owen on Monday September 8, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to PSYC 333 at Kansas taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 321 views. For similar materials see Child Development in Psychlogy at Kansas.
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Date Created: 09/08/14
Chapter 3 Prenatal Development and Birth 0 Prenatal development development that occurs between the moment of conception and the beginning of the birth process From Conception to Birth 1 Period of zygote the first phase of prenatal development lasting from conception until the developing organism becomes firmly attached to the wall of the uterus a From conception through implantation which lasts about 10 to 14 days 2 Period of the embryo the second phase of prenatal development lasting from the 339 to the 8 prenatal week during which the major organs and anatomical structures take shape a Virtually all major organs are formed and the heart begins to beat 3 Period of the fetus the third phase of prenatal development lasting from the 9 prenatal week until birth during this period all major organ systems begin to function and the fetus grows rapidly The Period of the Zygote As the zygote moves down the fallopian tube towards the uterus it divides by mitosis into two cells These two cells continue to divide forming a balllike structure or blastocyst 0 Blastocyst the name given to the ball of cells formed when the fertilized egg begins to divide o Contains 60 to 80 cells within 4 days of conception 0 Embryo the name given to the prenatal organism from the 3quotquot to the 8 week after conception o The embryo is the inner layer of the blastocyst and the outer layer of cells will develop into tissues that protect and nourish the embryo Implantation 0 Implantation the burrowing of the blastocyst into the lining of the uterus o Tendrils burrow inward tapping the pregnant woman39s blood supply o There is a specific quotwindow of implantation during which the blastocyst must communicate biologically with the uterine wall position itself attach and penetrate o Nearly 3 out of 4 zygotes fail to survive the initial phase of prenatal development Development of Support Systems Once implanted the bastocyst s outer layer rapidly forms four major support structures that protect and nourish the developing organism amnion chorion placenta and umbilical cord 1 Amnion a watertight membrane that surrounds the developing embryo serving to regulate its temperature and to cushion it against injuries o Amniotic fluid provide a weightless environment that will make it easier for the embryo to move 2 Chorion a membrane that becomes attached to the uterine tissues to gather nourishment from the embryo Eventually becomes the lining of the placenta o Yolk sac floats in the watery environment of the amniotic fluid and is attached to the chorion Produces blood cells until the embryo is capable of producing its own 3 Placenta an organ formed from the lining of the uterus and the chorion that provides for respiration and nourishment of the unborn child and the elimination of tis metabolic wastes 4 Umbilical cord a soft tube containing blood vessels that connects the embryo to the placenta o Formed by the allantois o Transports carbon dioxide and metabolic wastes from the embryo Purpose of the Placenta The placenta is fed by blood vessels from the pregnant woman and the embryo The placental barrier is semipermeable allowing some substances to pass through but not others blood vessels are too large to pass through Maternal blood flowing into the placenta delivers oxygen and nutrients into the embryo s bloodstream by means of the umbilical cord The placenta is the site of all metabolic transactions that sustain the embryo The Period of the Embryo The period of the embryo lasts from implantation through the 8 week of pregnancy By the 3quotquot week the embryotic disk is rapidly differentiating into three different cell layers ectoderm mesoderm and endoderm 1 Ectoderm the outer layer a Becomes the nervous system skin and hair 2 Mesoderm the middle layer a Becomes the muscles bones and circulatory system 3 Endoderm the inner layer a Becomes the digestive system lungs urinary tracts and other vital organs such as the pancreas and liver 0 Neural tube the primitive spinal cord the develops from the ectoderm and becomes the central nervous system the brain and spinal cord o Formed by a portion of the ectoderm At no time in the future will the embryo ever grow as rapidly or change as much as it has during the 1 prenatal month During the 2 39 month the embryo becomes much more human in appearance A primitive tail appears but is soon enclosed by protective tissue and becomes the coccyx the tip of the backbone 5 week the eyes have cornea s and lenses 7 week ears are well formed and the embryo has a rudimentary skeleton Limbs are now developing from the body outward The brain develops rapidly during the 2 month and it directs the organism39s first muscular contractions by the end of the embryonic period 7 8 prenatal weeks the embryo s sexual development begins with the appearance of a genital ridge called the indifferent gonad The circulatory system functions on its own for the liver and spleen have assumed the task of producing blood cells The Period of the Fetus The last 7 month of pregnancy is a period of rapid growth and refinement of all organ systems This is the time during which all major organ systems begin to function and the fetus begins to move sense and behave This is also a time when individuality emerges as different fetuses develop unique characteristics such as different patterns of movement and different facial expressions 0 Fetus name given to the prenatal organism from the 9 week of pregnancy until birth The Third Month Organ systems that were formed earlier continue their rapid growth and become interconnected allowing the fetus to kick make fists and twist its body The digestive and excretory systems are also working together allowing the fetus to swallow digest nutrients and urinate Sexual differentiation is progressing rapidly The male testes secrete testosterone In the absence of testosterone female genitalia form The Fourth through Six Months Simple movements increase in complexity and coordination so that the fetus can prepare itself for extrauterine life Premature babies may have difficulty breathing and suckling because they exit the womb at an early stage in the development of those skills Women can feel the kicking of the baby and the heartbeat can be heard with a stethoscope and as the amount of bone and cartilage increases as the skeleton hardens the skeleton can be detected by an ultrasound 0 Vernix the white cheesy substance that covers the fetus to protect the skin from chapping 0 Lanugo fine hair covering the fetus s body that helps vernix stick to the skin By the end of the 6 month the fetus s visual and auditory senses are clearly functional The Seventh through Ninth Months Comprise a quotfinishing phase during which all organ systems mature rapidly preparing the fetus for birth 0 Age of viability a point between the 22 39 and 28 prenatal weeks when survival outside the uterus is possible Fetuses born in the age of viability will still need oxygen assistance because the pulmonary alveoli in their lungs are too immature to inflate and exchange oxygen for carbon dioxide By the end of the 9 month fetal activity slows and sleep increases Potential Problems in Prenatal Development Environmental obstacles that may channel development along an abnormal path Teratogens Teratogen External agents such as viruses drugs chemicals and radiation that can harm a developing embryo or fetus Principles about the effects of teratogens 1 39leSensitj3c perjgdErjngipe The effects of a teratogen on a body part or organ system are worst during the period when that structure is forming and growing most rapidly 0 Sensitive period a period during which an organism is most susceptible to certain environmental influences outside this period the same environmental influences must be much stronger to produce comparable effects o Usually the time before a woman even knows she is pregnant 2 39hendiidtJailpjfferenceErjngipe Not all embryos or fetuses are equally affected by a teratogen susceptibility to harm is influenced by the embryo s or fetus s and the pregnant woman39s genetic makeup and the quality of the prenatal environment 3 The same defect can be caused by different teratogens 4 A variety of defects can result from a single teratogen 5 39heD9sageRrinciple The longer the exposure to or higher the quotdose or a teratogen the more likely it is that serious harm will be done 6 Embryos and fetuses can be affected by father39s as well as by mothers exposure to some teratogen s 7 The long term effects of a teratogen often depend on the quality of the postnatal environment 8 39heSeeperEffectrincipe Some teratogen s cause quotsleeper effects that may not be apparent until later in the child s life Teratogens can also have subtle effects on babies behavior that are not obvious at birth but influence their psychological development Diseases Suffered by the Pregnant Woman An embryo or fetus has an immature immune system that cannot produce enough antibodies to combat infections effectively and that the fetal environment may react differently to infections than the pregnant woman39s immune system does RUBELLA McAister Gregg noticed that many mothers who had had rubella early in pregnancy delivered babies who were blind 0 Rubella German Measles a disease that has little effect on a pregnant woman but may cause a number of serious birth defects in developing organisms who are exposed in the first 3 to 4 months of pregnancy OTHER INFECTIOUS DISEASES 0 Toxoplasmosis a disease caused by a parasite found in raw meat and cat feces can cause birth defects if transmitted to an embryo in the first trimester and miscarriage later in pregnancy SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES 0 Syphilis a common sexually transmitted disease that may cross the placental barrier in the middle and later stages of pregnancy causing miscarriage or serious birth defects 0 Genital herpes a sexually transmitted disease that can infect infants during birth causing blindness brain damage or death o Cesarean delivery surgical delivery of a baby through an incision made in the pregnant woman39s abdomen and uterus 0 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS a viral disease that can be transmitted from mother to her fetus or neonate and that results in a weakening of the body s immune system and ultimately death o Virus can be passed prenatally through the placenta while giving birth when there may be an exchange of blood between mother and child as the umbilical cord separates from the placenta or after birth if the virus is passed through the mother39s milk during breastfeeding o ZDV is used to treat those with HIV Drugs THE THALIDOMIDE TRAGEDY 0 Thalidomide a mild tranquilizer that taken early in pregnancy can produce a variety of malformations of the limbs eyes ears and hearts o Phocomeia structural abnormality in which all or parts of limbs are missing and the feet or hands may be attached directly to the torso Marketing to alleviate the periodic nausea and vomiting aka morning sickness that many women experience during the first trimester of pregnancy OTHER COMMON DRUGS 0 Diethylstilbestrol DES a synthetic hormone formerly prescribed to prevent miscarriage that can produce cervical cancer in female offspring and genitaltract abnormalities in males ALCOHOL Affects development of the fetus directly and indirectly by compromising the function of the placenta 0 Fetal alcohol syndrome FAS a group of serious congenital problems commonly observed in the offspring of mothers who abuse alcohol during pregnancy 0 Fetal alcohol effects FAE a group of mild congenital problems that are sometimes observed in children of mothers who drink sparingly to moderately during pregnancy CIGARETTE SMOKING Hypertension abnormal lung function increased risk of miscarriage or death shortly after birth higher incidences of ectopic pregnancies and higher heart rate while sleeping 0 Cleft lip a congenital disorder in which the upper lip has a vertical or pair of vertical openings or grooves 0 Cleft palate a congenital disorder in which the rood of the mouth does not close properly during embryonic development resulting in an opening or groove in the roof of the mouth ILLICIT DRUGS Mari39uana examination of the brain tissue of human fetuses reveals that marijuana use during pregnancy is associated with changes in the functioning of the basal nucleus of the amygdala an area of the brain that is involved in the regulation of emotional behavior These changes are more prevalent in male fetuses Women who use the drug two or more times per week deliver babies who display tremors sleep disturbances and a lack of interest in their surroundings over the first week or two of life This places children at a risk for adverse outcomes later in childhood like anxiety and depression Heroin methadone and other addicting narcotic agents do not appear to produce gross physical abnormalities however women who use these drugs are more likely than nonusers to miscarry deliver prematurely or have babies who will die soon after birth Speciaized caregijr1gmayhelpggmpensate fcgtreatv9rugteateddetiltiensi Cocaine constricts blood vessels of both mother and fetus thereby elevating fetal blood pressure and hampering the flow of nutrients and oxygen across the placenta TABLE 33 ON PAGE 107 Environmental Hazards RADIATION Advised to avoid X rays particularly of the pelvis and abdomen CHEMICALS AND POLLUTANTS Lead zinc or mercury discharged into the air are known to impair the physical health and mental abilities of adults and children and developing embryos and fetuses Studies of men in a variety of occupations reveal that prolonged exposure to radiation gas and other toxic chemicals can damage a father39s chromosomes increasing the likelihood of his chid s being miscarried or displaying genetic effects Environmental toxins can affect the reproductive system of either parent suggesting that both mothers and fathers should limit their exposure to known teratogens Characteristics of the Pregnant Woman The Pregnant Woman39s Diet Malnourished babies are often irritable and unresponsive interfering with positive developmental outcomes Small amounts of magnesium and zinc in a mother39s diet improves the functioning of the placenta and reduces the incidence of many birth complications 0 Folic acid A Bcomplex vitamin that helps to prevent defects of the central nervous system and down syndrome 0 Spina bifida a bulging of the spinal cord through a gap in the spinal column 0 Anencephay a birth defect in which the brain and neural tube fail to develop or develop incompletely and the skull does not close The Pregnant Woman39s Emotional Wellbeing Pregnant women under severe emotional stress risk pregnancy complications Long term consequences of maternal stress that appear during the sensitive period include increased risk for childhood development of ADHD symptoms externalizing problems and anxiety Stress related complications are much more likely when pregnant women are ambivalent or negative about their marriages or their pregnancies and have no friends or other bases of social support to turn to for comfort The Pregnant Woman39s Age The safest time to bear a child appears to be between about age 16 to 35 Complications are more likely among women over 35 and teenage pregnant women who lack adequate prenatal care 0 Neonate a newborn infant from birth to approximately 1 month of age Prevention of Birth Defects TABLE 34 on PAGE 113 shows the reduction in the likelihood of congenital disorders Birth and Perinatal Environment Perinatal refers to the time around birth both before and after birth 0 Perinatal Environment the environment surround birth The Birth Process 1 First stage of labor the period of the birth process lasting from the first regular uterine contractions until the cervix is fully dilated a Lasts on average 8 to 14 hours for firstborn children and 3 to 8 hours for ater borns 2 Second stage of labor the period of the birth process during which the fetus moves through the birth canal and emerges from the mother39s body also called the delivery a This is the time when the mother is told to push with each contraction to assist her child through the birth canal 3 Third stage of labor the expulsion of the placenta afterbirth a 5 to 10 minutes The Baby39s Experience Fetuses are stressed by birth but their own production of activating stress hormones is adaptive helping them to withstand oxygen deprivation by increasing their heart rate and the flow of oxygenated blood to the brain Birth stress also helps to ensure that babies are born wide awake and ready to breathe Assessing the Baby39s Condition 0 Apgar test a quick assessment of the newborn s heart rate respiration color muscle tone and reflexes that is used to gauge perinatal stress and to determine whether a neonate required immediate medical assistance o Heart rate respiratory effort muscle tone color and reflex irritability o May miss less obvious complications 0 Neonatal Behavior Assessment Scale NBAS a test that assesses a neonate s neurological integrity and responsiveness to environmental stimuli o Administered a few days after birth which assesses the strength of 20 inborn reflexes as well as changes in the infant39s state and reactions to comforting and other social stimuli o Especially well suited for young inexperienced caregivers who know little about babies Labor and Delivery Medications Mothers who receive large amounts of anesthesia are often less sensitive to uterine contractions and do not push effectively during the delivery As a result their babies may have to be pulled from the birth canal with obstetrical forceps or a vacuum extractor a plastic suction cup attached to the baby39s head These can damage a baby39s soft skull causing cranial bleeding and brain damage The Social Environment Surrounding Birth The Mother39s Experience 0 Emotional bonding a term used to describe the strong affectionate ties that parent39s may feel toward their infant some theorists believe that the strongest bonding occurs shortly after birth during a sensitive period 0 Alternative birth center a hospital birthing room or other independent facility that provides a homelike atmosphere from childbirth but still makes medical technology available POSTPARTUM DEPRESSION Postpartum depression strong feelings of sadness resentment and despair that may appear shortly after childbirth and can linger for months Maternity blues only lasts about a week or two and affect 4060 of women The Father39s Experience 0 Engrossment the paternal analogue of maternal emotional bonding the term used to describe fathers fascination with their neonates including their desire to touch hold caress and talk to the newborn baby The Sibling s Experience 0 Sibling rivalry the spirit of competition jealousy and resentment that may arise between two or more siblings Potential Problems at Birth Anoxia premature delivery and low birth weight Ano a 0 Anoxia a lack of sufficient oxygen to the brain may result in neurological damage or death o Umbilical cord has become tangled or squeezed during childbirth especially when children are laying in the breech position o Occur when the placenta separates prematurely interrupting the supply of food and oxygen to the fetus Can also happen after birth if sedatives given to the mother cross the placental barrier and interfere with the baby39s breathing or if mucus ingested during childbirth becomes lodged in the baby39s throat 0 Breech birth a delivery in which the fetus emerges feet first or buttocks first rather than head first o Usually delivered through Csection 0 RH factor a blood protein that when present in a fetus but not the mother can cause the mother to produce antibodies These antibodies may than attack the red blood cells of subsequent fetuses who have the protein in their blood Prematurity and Low Birth Rate Most babies are born between the 37 and 42quot week of pregnancy 0 Preterm babies infants born more than 3 weeks before their normal due dates 0 Smallfordate babies infants whose birth weight is far below normal even when born close to their normal due dates o These babies are at a greater risk of serious complications Psychosocial factors have been associated with both gestational duration and birth weight Short Term Consequences of Low Birth Weight The most trying task for a ow birthweight baby is simply surviving the first few days of life Preterm infants often spend their first few weeks of life in heated isolettes that maintain their body temperature and protect them from infection Long Term Consequences of Low Birth Weight Likely to experience more learning difficulties later in childhood score lower on IQ tests and to suffer more emotional problems than normal birth weight infants Longterm prognosis depends largely on the environment in which they are raised Reproductive Risk and Capacity for Recovery Given a supportive and stimulating home environment in which to grow and the unconditional love of at least one caregiver a majority of children will display a strong selfrighting tendency and eventually overcome their initial handicaps
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