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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Austin Eng on Tuesday September 9, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to a course at University of Miami taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 134 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/14
Friolay September 5 ZD14 1215 PM The Laws Leading to Atomic Theory 0 Law of Conservation of Mass in every chemical operation an equal quantity of matter exists before and after the operation 0 Law of Definite Proportions in any given compound the proportions by mass of the elements that compose it are fixed independent of the origin of the compound or its mode of preparation Vitamin C ascorbic acid o 1600 VitC 100mg 100 tab Hawaii natural 8 VitC 100mg 100 tab natural 399 VitC 100mg 100tab synthetic VTAMN C is VITAMIN C no matter what Aunt Tilly took natural vitamins after synthetic ones Felt better and walked better but placebo effect Or naturals may have another compound besides vitamin C in it Natural vitamins are not regulated just check for quantity of vitamin and pesticides 0 Law of Combining Voumes when 2 gases react the volumes that combine at some temperature do so in the ratio of simple integers o eg 2H 02 gt 2H2O 2vo 1 vol 2vo volumes are not conserved 0 Gay Lussac was first to discover volumes not conserved reaction of N2 with H2 to produce ammonia I 1vo N2 3vo 3H2gt 2 vol 2NH3 o Dalton believed elements combined to form diatomic molecules Rule of Simplicity I NHgt NH 0 Avogadro39s Law equal volumes of ideal gases at the same temp and pressure contain the same number of molecules 0 N23H2 gt2NH3 0 The Law of Multiple Proportions when 2 elements form 2 different compound the masses of element B that combined with 1 g of element A can be expressed as a ratio of small whole 39s The General Structure of Atoms 0 Protons Neutrons none 0 E surround nucleus confined to orbitals 0 Equal numbers of protons and electrons in elements so that they are uncharged Atomic Structure charge of proton charge of electron 16021773x1019 coulomb 0 Mass of proton and electron are the same 0 Equal numbers of protons and electrons and uncharged o Z atomic number protons and describes identity of element 0 N neutron M I1 C 0 AM mass number ZN Z o 126C 6 and carbon code for the same thing and can therefore be omitted 0 Isotopes same protons different number of neutrons 0 Hydrogen deuterium tritium T II pig quotHQ Heavy water D20 New Section 1 Page 1 r I A K 13 I l9I flil 5 Mass Spectrometry pass new elements through parent peak highest peak from noise Heavy water D20 Molecular Formula subscripts specify covalent species only the exact number if atoms of each element in one molecule of the substance Empirical formula relative numbers of each kind of atom in the molecule smallest whole number ratio molecular formula must be some exact Formula unit all ionic compounds exist in large crystalline arrays rather than as discrete molecules New Section 1 Page 2 Unn1 Au4 233311 12 47 pm Experimental error standard weight 10 100 or 1g Precision degree of agreement between duplicate experiments Not necessarily the best answer Eg 10001g 10001g 100029 good precision Best duplicated by different people and verified Accuracy degree of agreement with the true result 39 Eg O001g O005g 0006g accurate but not precise quot True Types of Error Systematic shift in measured value from true value Random due to limitations of instrument or technique r matical techniques Can reduce with Fourier transformsFT I I Noise cancels real peaks add Helps reduce noise quickly using fewer scans MRI is based on NMR methods need FT Intro to Sig Figs Error is always in last digit range of error is 001g Last number uncertain by de nition quote all sure digits pl 5 1 morec m L Reading a buret 4 1 4 f meniscus read from the ttom Jae quotso 597 4975 bc 34 up 499 4950 X 46 4995 496 Rules for Sig Figs All non zero digits are signi cant zeros that precede the first nonzero digit are not significant eg 000174 3 sigs Zeros surrounded by non zero digits are sigeg 9006 4 sig 1 Zeros that follow the last nonzero digit are sig if there is a decimal 2300 4 sf 600 3 st if no decimal it cannot be determined if zeros at the end of the number are signi cant gures r 700 12 or 3 Rounding off Numbers IF first discarded digits is less than 5 remaining digits are unchanged 4g44fl4 rounded to 1 sf 4x10quot1 If first discarded digit greater than 5 discarded digit is increased by 1 1 666666 7x10 1 If first discarded digit is 5 and followed by one or more nonzero digits the last remaining digit is increased by 1 0 1145006 to 3 st 115 IF the rst discarded digit is 5 and all subsequent digits are 0 the last remaining digit is retained and rounded to the closest even digit even number rule 114650 rounded to 4 sf 1146 114530 to 4 sf 1146 choose clos t t o i inal g7 I quot s 8 r9 2 ltJ 1 I L Li ig gs in calculators Following addition and subtraction round off so tat the sum or difference has the same of decimal places as there are in the measur ent with the smallest number of decimal places 141 v 7592 00 1 39 7734 1 7734 Multiplic tion and division smallest number of sigjjgs in the measured 7 quantities used as input 46x237984 10946546 11x10quot2 Multiple calculations 1 first do add and sub and report each answer with the correct of c 392 5103377 41 9270 17 963 x 47605 51603Dr4666539 J 3939 01 2f97 022 371 x 10quot4 374497 x 10quot4 moving 9 dpnothing to do with igfgs H quot quotffp 657963x10 3 657x10quot3 2 when adding or subtracting using scientific notion all numbers must have the same exponent The Metric System Second defined from spectrum of cesium 133 Meter no longer a bar but the distance travelled by light in a vacuum during a time interval uL Meter kilo second kelvin mole ampere candela Pre xes dec Computer Language 1 gigabyte 1024 mb 1 terabyte 1024 gt 1 petabyte 1024 02 1 exabyte 1024 pp 1 zettabyte 1024 eg 1 yottabyte 1024 J Temperature lnterconversions C 59F32 KC 27315quot 1C1K 1F 59K Unofficial Units 1 mL1cmquot3quot 1A10 10m 1aIrn 101325Pa Q1Q1325MEa Unit Factor Method dimensional analysis 39 1k922lD lt92l2lbX22lD1k9 Density massvolume 1 calculate the number of L in 10 gal of gas 1 gal 4quarts 1 quart 946quot quot 41 4 l 3 3 7L l 3 396 quot N 39 34 f 2 an airplane flying at the speed of sound is ta1elirg at 1087fts What is the speed in kmhr 001 km r0I o 3 r E 2quot A 9ltr l quot quot r 39 4 H14 39J 39 7quot H l3 no 9C 51 1 Ari bx hf Jig 3 Convert 500inquot2 to cm 2 392 4 iffn 90 3 21 I 239 39 33 IL J M 39 3 9quotquot I I 0 r 4 What is the normal body temperature of a human being in c 986F K IVA 3 c Pqe grill 1 5 A nert ball has a mass of 5009 and a volume of 549cmquot3 Compute its density Will it sink or swim oz So39 0 2 Z 3 5 id u Un 2 mg 5 son is 529 Chemistry the study of matter which is anything that has mass and occupies space F Obs ervation U I Vl7h a39fTsit row much is there DWI 851931 do thy j mm 1 a K the properties uniform from place to place in a sample of ia Homogenous sample o gt 39 es orrnlrom olacetopla lo tliierogeneoersepizza gy pure 02 n any compound ll29NaCl CO2 well mbted mixturejtp re quot compoundselements it is the sampling that is important Vr l 0 4 4 orab U 8 3939 well mixed antrcomipletely dissolved Cannot understand elemental chemistry of something that is not 100 Must separate a heterogeneous solution into pure components Properties of Matter Extensive Properties depends on how much matter is being considered eg mass length volume Values are additive adding values makes sense Intensive Property does not depend on how much matter is being considered eg temperature density z3 0 values are not additive does not mak seto add i quot 3 am gt7 39 7439 Physical Property can be measured or observes Without changing the composition or identity of a substance eg bp 19 color Chemical Property measured and observed only by changing the composition or identity of the substance burning something or boiling an egg change in chemical composition Different Branches of Chemistry 1 Analytical composition and amounts of a substance eg forensic chemist 2 Biochemistry molecules and chemical reactions of life the study of the compounds chemical transformations and molecular interactions involved in the development and reproduction of living organisms 3 Inorganic Chemistry the chemistry of all elements and their compound except those in which the chemistry of C is most important includes radiochemistry J3 x Wx 3 2 9 39 VquotCH 7 quot39l k 393 I7quots u 4 Organic Chemistry study of chemistry of molecules and atoms in which C is most important Ccontaining and all living matter or anything that was once alive contains carbon 5 Physical Chemistry deals with the relationships between the physical properties and their chemical formations along with their changes also deals with the discovery and description of the theoretical basis of the behavior of chemical substances including polymers The Atomic theory of Matter Modern evidence for the existence of atoms comes from Scanning Tunneling Microscope Heinrich Rohrer and Gerd Binnig IBM 1981 nobel prize 1986 in Physics Modern STM atomic resolution at low cost The Beginning Xe on Ne 1989 Atom Fe on Cu kanji for atom CO Man CO on Pt The l398lj10 l 3 human hair 2005 Rice U Cornell made nano guitars out of silicone Postulates of Atomic Theory of Matter 1 2 3 Matter Consists of individual atoms no longer true can split an atom All of the atoms of a given chemical element are identical in mass and in all other properties no isotopes Different chemical elements have different kinds of atoms and in particular such atoms have different masses false Atoms are irigestruck3me and retain their identity in chemical reactions true in ordinary chemical reactions The formation of a compound from its elements occurs through the combination of atoms unlike elements in small whole number ratios true
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