Study of Early Civilizations
Study of Early Civilizations HIST 2361
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This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Branson Mitchell on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 2361 at University of Houston taught by Frank Holt in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 91 views. For similar materials see /class/208351/hist-2361-university-of-houston in History at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Week ZB Notes HIST 2361 Sumer pronounced ShOOmayor the oldest known civilization on the planet In 1836 Christian Thomson defined early human cultures based on technology 0 Stone Age people first began to chip stone into different tools 0 Bronze Age as time went on people figured out how to meld bronze 0 Iron Age once they discovered they could do this with iron and it was superior to bronze The Stone Agesfrom 25 million years ago 3000 BC 0 Old Stone Age Paleolithic lasted from 25 million years ago 10000 BC Primarily nomadic people just following the animals they hunted for food 0 Middle Stone Age Mesolithic lasted from 25 million years ago 10000 BC Primarily the same lifestyle as Old Stone Age 0 New Stone Age Neolithic lasted from 10000 3000 BC The communities that had previously been migratory became sedentary This happened because the Ice Age ended and they made advances in agriculture Over time near the end of the Neolithic period large cities began to emerge As they were able to produce more and more food people were able to branch off and have other occupations State amp Urban Revolution ca 3300 BC 0 Civilization people beginning to live in cities 0 History 0 Writing people began to be able to write records meaning this is the beginning ofhistory Ancient writing systems from Mesopotamia and Egypt were lost and had to be reexamined and rediscovered One of these is called CUNEIFORM called this because it is wedge shaped It was written in Mesopotamia Hieroglyphics means priestly writing called this because it was written by priests 200 years ago nobody on Earth could read Cuneiform or Hieroglyphics so we had a lot of material but no way to read it Written communication can be Pictographic picture writing a picture ofa lightbulb meaning 39lightbulb Ideographic the writing down ofideas a picture ofa lightbulb meaning 39thinking 0 Phonetic syllabic alphabetic alphabetic means to convey a particular sound a picture of a bee meaning 39b like 39bee safe Syllabic means consonant and vowel Napoleon s Invasion of Egypt Napoleon not only took and army of soldiers he also brought an army of scholars so they could study the things they confiscated from the Egyptian civilization Rosetta 1799 When Napoleon set up camp in Rosetta he found a stone that had hieroglyphics a random teXt nobody could read called quotdemoticquot and Greek writing This stone is called Coronation Decree which reads Ptolemy V March 27 196 BC Napoleon s scholars were able to read the Greek part It said at the end quotInscribe this decree in hard stone using sacred native and Greek writingquot This is exciting because it meant that the part they could read in Greek was the same as what was written in the other languages Although the French lost it to the British it was still a Frenchman Jean Francois Champollion who deciphered hieroglyphics Jean Francois Champollion was encouraged by his brother to study the texts At 19 he was named the professor oflanguages at a university Champollion announced his decipherment in 182 2 He died 10 years later and never saw the actual stone We are now able to read hieroglyphics and demotic The Rosetta Stone became a prize of war 0 The Egyptians lost it to the French 0 The French lost it to the British 0 King George III gave it to the British museum in 1802 where it remains today Assumption Some signs must be phonetic represent sounds Any identifiable figure will always be the beginning of the teXt because hieroglyphics can go either way You also read it top to bottom then over one Cuneiformwas made from pressing wedge shaped forms into clay It is one script but can be used to write many languages Sumerian Akkadian Elamite etc After 3000 years 100 BC Cuneiform 39died and stopped being used so people stopped being able to read it A huge inscription was found on the side ofa mountain called the quotBehistun Inscription It was similar to the Rosetta Stone for deciphering Sir Henry Rawlinson a British army officer decided to copy the Behistun Inscription but had to be dangled by his feet from the side of the mountain in 1837 In 1839 he began to note repetitive signs in the Cuneiform He published his findings in 1846 From the Behistun teXt in Persian Babylonian and Elamite scholars have worked back to Sumerian and Akkadian Week 2A Notes HIST 2361 Neanderthals were during the Stone Ages but the Stone Ages began before the Neanderthals If recorded history of civilizations is 6000 years the Neanderthals were almost 100000 years prior to that The beginning of the Stone Ages was The extinction of the dinosaurs occurred 65 million years ago The earth was once thought to be less than 6000 years old because of the chronological genealogy lists in the Old Testament In 1650 James Ussher used Biblical lists of generations to calculate the year and date of Creation as October 23 4004 BC Sir John Lightfoot a famous Cambridge scholar calculated more precisely that the earth was created on October 23 4004 BC at 900 am Since then humans have discovered deep space and deep time 3800 light years ago We have also discovered dinosaurs and the stone ages The KT iridium boundary is the line that goes around the earth that marks the meteor crash 65 million years ago which made the dinosaurs go extinct CHRONOLOGY PROVIDES PERSPECTIVE Chronology Chronos time logos study of History wants to explain things but they have to be in the right order Earth is approximately 45 billion years old Human civilization has existed 6000 years Define civilization has a system of writing a form of government and law cities Ancient history is not important because it was so long ago it is important because it was so long It is 34ths of recorded history Alfred Crosby Ecological Imperialism 1986 quotBetween the Neolithic Revolution and the time of Columbus is a span of 4000 years where nothing of significant importance really happened Not true many important things and people have their origins in antiquity How many centuries separate the pyramid builders from Cleopatra Relative chronology 26 centuries 2600 years How many centuries separate you from Cleopatra About 20 centuries Pyramids built in 2600 BC 1 AD is Cleopatra We are closer to Cleopatra than she was to the building of the pyramids Absolute chronology What do these events have in common The French Revolution the Founding of Rome The Capture of Babylon by Seleceucus The Birth ofesus The First Olympics All of these were considered The Year One by different cultures The Birth of Jesus is predominately considered the Year One AD comes from Dionysius EXiguus Dennis the Little a priest The Catholic Church asked Dennis to calculate a new Year One based on when Jesus was born AD stands for Anno Domini which means the year of the Lord BC was originally AC which meant Ante Christum or before Christ The year of Iesus s birth was miscalculated and he was actually likely 4 yearsold during Year One To appear less culturally biased some people prefer BCECE before the common eracommon era But this is stupid In what century does the year 490 BC fall Early 5th century BC Centuries and Millennia begin in odd years 2001 not 2000 Centuries 500 401 BC 5th century BC 400301 BC 4th century BC 300201 3ml century BC 1001 BC 1st century BC 1100 AD 1st century AD Before we had our current dating system they would go by how many years someone had been in office what season it was etc Now we have scholars who go through and add up these local collections of data and put an actual year on them All 12 months are Roman names things or numbers In 1836 Christian Thomson defined early human cultures based on technology 0 Stone Age 0 Bronze Age 0 Iron Age Week 33 Notes HIST 2361 Hatshepsut 14731458 BC She was one of three female Egyptian pharaohs She had to look like a man during state affairs so the gods would be able to deal with her and is sometimes depicted wearing a beard She led armies against the Hitites Responsible for the largest mortuary temple ever built which she built for herself She became pharaoh because when her husband died her stepson was supposed to take over However he was so young that she stepped in to rule until he was old enough to take over However she ended up staying in power for over 20 years This stepson was Thutmosis III Thutmosis 111 14581426 BC He was angry with Hatshepsut and had her memory condemned after her death He defaced her monuments and tried to erase her from history Akhenaten 13521336 BC one of the most strange pharaohs He changed his name before taking the throne from worshipping one god to worshipping another Aten Aten was the great sun god and Akhenaten believed that he was the only god making him one of the first monotheistsThis made the people of Egypt and the priests very upset He also outraged the army because he was so obsessed with Aten that all he wanted to do was worship Aten and he stopped leading the army causing the Egyptian empire to shrink as the Hitites began trying to invade again He built a new capital based on worshipping Aten He also introduced a new more realistic style of Egyptian art called Amarna style We call it Amarna because that is the modern day location of Akhenaten s new capital city He was married to Nefertiti Old Kingdom Egypt had the capital at Memphis Middle Kingdom made its capital at Thebes Under Akhenaten in the New Kingdom the capital is Akhetaten his new capital city After his death the priests and military leaders tried to erase the new things he did and they tore up his city and left it as a wasteland His attempt at monotheism failed because he tried to impose his new beliefs on people rather than the people changing their beliefs and it working its way up to their ruler Ramses II ruled from 12791212 BC was in many ways the most powerful of all of the pharaohs Part of the 19th Dynasty a militaristic dynasty His artwork was very militaristic He had more than 50 sons not sure how many daughters His mummy was recovered in 1881 He is the only pharaoh whose mummy left Egypt when he was sent to Paris in 1976 to have radiation treatments to stop the fungus growing on his mummy The Egyptians demanded that his mummy be treated in the same custom as a living diplomat during this transfer Ancient grave robbers robbed nearly every royal tomb so the priests actually took the bodies from the tombs labeled them and hid them in a cave where they were then found in 1881 The bodies were originally buried in the Valley of the Kings but they were moved somewhat south New Kingdom buried their kings in rock cut tombs rather than pyramids Tutankhaten 133313 23 BC Renamed himself Tutankamun now known as King Tut under the advisement of the army and priesthood in order to reject the changes made by his father Akhenaten Moved the capital back to Thebes and reinstated the polytheistic religions He reigned as a child and died around the time he became a teenager He was never able to accomplish anything significant but is most famous because he is the only pharaoh with a tomb still relatively in tact This is because he was so unimportant that his tomb was essentially forgotten about In 1922 his tomb was discovered by Howard Carter an archaeologist who was funded by Lord Carnarvon a wealthy English man who was advised by his doctor to spend time in Egypt Lord Carnarvon decided to furnish his castle Downton Abbey with King Tut s things Carter looked for ten years for King Tut s tomb and was almost cut off by Carnarvon Around Christmas 192 2 King Tut s tomb was found near the oor of the Valley of the Kings The tomb has four chambers the Antechamber filled with lots of nice things the Annex filled with even more nice things the Burial Chamber had a system of coffins guarding his body and the Treasury filled with more awesome stuff There were actually 3 mummies in King Tut s tomb him and his two children who died as babies The access to photos and stories about the tombs were very limited so many reporters made up stories about the tomb and the surrounding events such as Lord Carnarvon s death being called quotKing Tut s Curse Iames Tappern invited to play two trumpets found in the tombs in King Tut s tomb This event was said to have started WWII by awakening the evil spirits KV 5 Tomb plan a huge tomb found with no in tact rooms Week 13 Notes HIST 2361 quotThe unexamined life is not worth living Socrates Define History The study of the surviving evidence preferably written from which we infer the past concerning people amp events We will never have everything from an event just a sample ofa sample ofa sample etc Historical record diminishes over time Historical evidence can be destroyed by natural disasters manmade disasters wars etc The Greeks established a civilization in what is now Afghanistan Archaeologists have only been able to find Ai Khanoum Afghanistan which has been excavated and is the only found Greek city in this area out of thousands that are thought to be in that area A page of Aristotle was found in the palace ruins and it ended up not being a page just the surviving ink which was quickly blown away Tell Halaf Syria March 12 1912 archaeologists find large statues preserved underground When the Germans found them and brought them to Berlin when we bombed Berlin the statues were destroyed quotThe past is a puzzle with pieces always missing What kinds of sourcesWe study the sources to get accurate recounts of the past Epigraphy inscriptions engraved on metal or stone stone survives better than paper Numismatics the scientific study of coins Papyrology ancient texts written on papyrus mainly Egypt Archaeology the study of excavated remains The Power of History Who controls the past controls the future Who controls the present controls the past Control those who can control the past in order to control the future Why do we know scientists better than archaeologists and historians Science is seen as cut and dry right and wrong History is seen as debatable HOMEWORK DUE TUESDAY Week 4A Notes HIST 2361 Mummification sarcophagus means quotbody eater in Latin Every Egyptian needed to be mummified and buried in hisher native land the Nile valley according to the mythic rituals of Osiris and Isis Osiris brother Isis sister married Isis gave birth to Horus Seth Osiris brother Nephthys sister of Seth and the other two Seth was jealous of Osirirs and trapped him in a sarcophagus He died His sisterwife Isis recovers Osiris but Seth cut up the body so Isis had to go find all his pieces She restored his body through mummification and put him back in the magic sarcophagus After this myth every Egyptian wanted to be mummified too Horus decided to take revenge against Seth but Seth ripped out Horus s eye but Isis regenerated it for him Horus s eye then came to represent eternal life and restoration What constitutes a person 1 Body Egyptians believed you could not live on after death ifyou did not have the body preserved 2 Name your name must survive and be spoken to continue in the afterlife names were vital to them Ka lifeforce double stays with the body the ka symbol looks like a goal post 4 Ba personality can leave your body and travel around even while you are alive Represented by a weird bird with an egg on its head Can leave you in dreams etc but it always comes back In death the Ba bird can still leave the tomb but it returns to the body otherwise you don t exist anymore 539quot Egyptians always threw away the brain usually during mummification Replace the brain with resin that smelled sweet The priests would work at the mortuary They lay the body on an entombing table They make an incision in the left side of the body and pull out your intestines they wash them then put them in nice jars These jars were Canopic jars one for the stomach lungs liver intestines The heart was the only major organ that stayed in the body They then wrap the body in linens place a mask over the wrapped body then you are put into a sarcophagus There is a trial for the dead person before the assembly of the gods Anubis the Iackleheaded god of embalming brings you to your judgement day in front of Osiris Iris Nephthys and Horus along with your Canopic jars They put your jars on a scale against a feather called the god ofjustice Maat and if your heart is lighter than the feather you are good to go and you become an Osiris Ifit is not lighter than a feather your heart is thrown to a monster who eats it and your body is no longer complete This never happens though and everyone is ruled to be just In Old Kingdom when only royalty could go to the afterlife normal Egyptians were buried in the Nile in the sand These bodies would stay very in tact even years later Normal Egyptians decided they wanted tombs though but without mummifying the body the body will not stay in tact This is when normal Egyptians decided to start mummifying Modernday Turkey was called Asia Minor or Anatolia The Fertile Crescent an area where intensive agriculture can be maintained under irrigation Between Mesopotamia and Lower Egypt is called the Land Bridge between the Desert and the sea This Land Bridge connected the two great centers of commerce and it was fundamentally important to control that land bridge Geography pros amp cons In ancient civilizations your geographical location determined a lot of what your civilization was capable of Climate the most moderate climate is in Greece Food Greece did not have a lot of food resources Egypt had great food resourced Transportation Egypt would often free criminals offin the desert so they would die However travel along the Nile was easy Defense Egypt was the best geographical location for defense because they are protected North and South and there is no other way to access them Building materials Egypt had great building resources of stone amp brick Lebanon has forests so they can use that to build ships Mesopotamia had to build out of mud brick Greeks also had a lot ofbuilding stone Hittites vs New Kingdom Egypt Fighting over the land bridge This lasted 900 years between the Hittites and Egypt An unexpected invasion in 1200 BC by the quotSea Peoples took both by surprised and attacked the coast lines of the Mediterranean Nobody knows where they came from but they caught everyone off guard They knocked out the Hittite empire Egypt fought the Sea People off but the Egyptian empire fell soon after When the Sea Peoples eliminated the two great super powers the land bridge became open and there was awindow of opportunity that lasted for a few centuries This area then became op en for development Between 1200800 BC a few new small cultures develop settling in the land bridge area One of these were the Philistines in the southern part of the land bridge now called the Palestineans in Palestine The Israelites settled in the middle and the Phoenecians settle a bit north Sometime around 1200 BC the Israelites were able to leave Egypt led by Moses and they moved into the land bridge 1000 BC the time of the Judges the Israelites fought the Philistines for control of the land bridge Between 1000 900 BC The Israelites end up being led by David and Solomon who bring the tribes together to establish a kingdom and take over the Land Bridge After this the Israelites and Iudah broke up and went their separate ways In Mesopotamia the Assyrians begin attacking into the land bridge weakening the monarchy of the Israelites They eventually are defeated in battle and deported by the Assyrians The Assyrians conquer the entire land bridge and eventually Egypt as well This is why we call the Assyrians the first Universal Empire which is the land bridge Egypt and Mesopotamia The reason the Assyrians are so successful is because they were highly intelligent but also very ruthless They liked to torture kill deport etc However they also created the first great libraries They made a calculated decision to make sure they were feared not just admired The Assyrians art liked to depict themselves killing enemies in war Week 43 Notes HIST 2361 Did the Trojan War Really Happen The Aegean WorldSea In Greece It is made ofmountains and sea Greece is well provided with building stone Not a great river feeding into Athens There are also a lot of earthquakes Ancient Thera now known as Santarini This is 60 miles north of Crete home of the Minoans Thera is now a small island but around 1600 BC the volcano on this island exploded and destroyed most of the island Krakatoa was a crazy explosive volcano Thera s explosion may have been ten times more explosive than Krakatoa Late Bronze Age included the Hittites and New Kingdom Egypt The Minoans are conquered by the Mycenaens Around 1200 BC the Sea People come in and conquer the Hittites Mycenaeans and weaken Egypt Mycenaens 1600110OBC had Linear B as their writing Was in contact with the Hittites and New Kingdom Egypt Minoans 22001450 BC had Linear A as their writing but we have not been able to decipher it Greece 1100800 BC the Greeks stop writing We call this the dark age Iron age Trojan war Homer the poet wrote down stories that had been passed on for years One of these stories was the Trojan war which is said to occur in 1200 BC He wrote about it in 800 BC The Trojans Priam Hecuba Andromache Hector Paris Helen Queen of Sparta marries Paris of Troy Astyanax Paris steals Helen from Troy and the Greeks decided to fight to go get her back because she was already married to the King of Sparta Hector who is married to Andromache Aeneas Sarpedon and Dolon are heroes for the Trojans They are helped also by the Greek gods Apollo Ares Artemis The Achaeans Clytemnestra Agamemnon MenalausKing of Sparta Helen Peleus Thetis Achilles Their heroes are Patroclus Nestor Ajax Odysseus and the gods who help them are Athena Hera and Poseidon Heinrich Schliemann 1870 a rich German banker and archaeologist who decided to prove that the Homeric stories were true and there really was a Trojan War He took his money and went looking for Troy He lied constantly was not very educated Found a young beautiful Greek wife Goes to Turkey finds a bronze age city and claims it is Troy It ended up actually being Troy The way he excavated was not very good and he left pretty bad trenches and was fairly destructive He claimed to find a chest of treasure that he said once belonged to King Priam of Troy and smuggled it out of the country He gave his wife the jewels to wear and take a picture in it said it was Helen of Troy s Unfortunately all of these jewels are 1000 years older than the Trojan War story They ended up giving the treasures to Berlin but during WWII they hid the treasure and the Russians ended up finding it and hiding it until 1992 There is still fighting over what country the treasure should go to Schliemann next excavated Mycenae to find Agamemnon Found a death mask which he claimed was Agamemnon s but it ended up not being his He eventually died in 1890 of an ear infection He almost excavated Crete and found the Minoans but felt the owner of the land was trying to cheat him Overall he is credited for discovering the Greek Bronze Age Mycenaean Civilization Before Schliemann we did not know that these people existed Sir Arthur Evans 18511941 Discovered the Minoan Civilization by excavating Crete It only took him three weeks to discover it He was a trained scholar but he believes that part of the story of Theseus amp the minotaur might be true He finds a large palace while excavating and it looks like a labyrinth They find representations of bulls drawn all over the palace Theseus amp The Minotaur long before Trojan war there was a great city Knossos Crete It was ruled by King Minos who controlled all of the ships around Crete and was very wealthy He had a family problem because his wife fell in love with a bull and she insisted on mating with the bull Had a fake bull made so she could mate with the bull and she got pregnant by the bull and had a halfhuman halfbull child and named it Minotaur The bull had to be hidden so a labyrinth maze was built to keep the minotaur trapped The minotaur would only eat humans so each Greek city had to send young men and women were sent to Crete and sacrificed into the Labyrinth The Prince ofAthens Theseus was upset over this so he pulled a Katniss and volunteered to go into the Labyrinth He seduces a Crete Princess who smuggles him a ball of string and a sword He is then able to kill the minotaur and he sails back to Athens Leaves the princess he picked up in Crete behind on an island and she marries the god of Spring Break Convinces his father he has been killed his father kills himself but then he is alive so he then becomes king of Athens Linear A Crete Minoan language not Greek Linear B Crete amp Mainland is Greek and we have translated it as of 1953 Week 3A Notes HIST 2361 What was life really like The bottom part of the MesopotamiaTigris Euphrates Valley is called Sumer This area is where the first records of written documents come from The ZIGERAT was the primary architecture in Sumeria which was three blocks stacked on each other Sargon the First an Akkadian ruled around 2350 and was considered the great unifier Shortly after 2000 BC Mesopotamia was invaded by the Amorites a group of desert dwelling nomads The Amorites establish the capital city of Babylon meaning gateway of the gods The greatest leader of the BabyloniansAmorites was Hammurapi who ruled from 17921750 BC He had all systems of law be studied and unified then published throughout his empire We have one entire piece of this law code and it is the first one we have documented and intact The Code of Hammurapiwas found in 1901 by archelogists digging in Mesopotamia and it is now in France at the Louve It is written in cuneiform There are two figures on top of the code one is Hammurapi standing the other is a god seated Hammurapi is shown blowing a kissadoration to the god The god Shamash is seen handing him a scroll suggesting that he was given this code by the god This is similar to the story of Moses being given the 10 Commandments Whether you were a Hebrew or a Babylonia the laws were handed down by god not man This means you have no right as a human to challenge these laws they are divine and not subject to change These laws remains until the Greeks and Romans came through and doubted the legitimacy of these laws as being divine so they changed the laws Shamash is the god for finding and punishing evildoers There are 282 legal rulings written on this code All of them are presented as an quotifthen statement if someone does this then this is the punishment The 5th law says quotIf any judge does not pass correctjudgment in any case then that judge must be removed from office The punishments are Talionicmeaning retaliation and stricter for commoners and slaves Nobles tended to only pay fines while commoners and slaves were getting their eyes poked out and stuff Some parts of the Code of Hammurapi are still in place today such as the death penalty The laws reveal very important things about Mesopotamian life 0 Marriages and divorce very specific Rights of women and children treated women far better than the Greeks who invented democracy Crimes Prostitution regulated by the state but not illegal Business transactions you have to have a receipt for everything Farming quality of land grain Oxen are written about A LOT etc Professional misconduct medical doctors found guilty of malpractice have to abide by the eyeforaneye policy as long as they are of the same social class If anyone brings forth a false accusation then the accuser shall be put to death Ifa wetnurse swaps children then she shall lose her breast If anyone fails to maintain his irrigation ditches then he shall pay damages to his neighbor Ifa wife is caught with another man then both shall be bound and drowned in the river Ifa wife is suspected then she shall face trial by ordeal in the river throw you into river and see ifyou drown or if the gods save you Ifa man takes a wife then he may not abandon her if she becomes ill Ifa cheating wife kills her husband then she shall be impaled Ifa tavernkeeper does not report rebellious talk then he shall be executed If anyone is guilty ofincest with his mother then both shall be burned to death Ifa slave claims to be a free man he will have his ear cut off 0 If any man harbors a runaway slave then the harborer shall be put to death Social Classes In Mesopotamia in almost every ancient society the people who owned the most stuff usually claimed noble lineage 0 Awilum Nobles o Mushkenum commoners o Wardum slaves Why are there no such codes from Egypt Because Pharaohs were considered living deitiesgods therefore Pharaoh only had to speak and it was law In Egypt there were Old Kingdom age of the pyramids especially the 4th Dynasty Middle Kingdom and New Kingdom In between these kingdom time periods are intermediate periods It is not like this in Mesopotamia because they were constantly being invaded Egypt was not easy to invade therefore its history is more unified In the Old Kingdom only the Egyptian pharaoh and his family were entitled to mummification and the afterlife There was an early dynastic period but they had not begun using hieroglyphics Manetho an Egyptian scholar was asked by the Greeks to research Egyptian history from the beginning up until 4th century BC He organized this in DYNASTIES However there is no unified Egyptian civilization until around 2700 BC The first Intermediate age was when Egypt was in turmoil in around 2200 BC because the people rose up against their pharoh In 2000 BC the Middle Kingdom began The biggest difference between Old and Middle is that Middle Kingdom pharohs became more in tune with their subjects They stopped spending 30 years making people build their tombs Instead they decided to use the labor and resources to improve infrastructure and benefit the population Filled in a huge basin through the Nile to help irrigation Fayyum Middle Kingdom allowed regular people to become mummified Second intermediate age was in 1800 brought about by the invasion of the Hyksos These foreigners were able to invade Egypt and conquer the Nile Valley They brought horses and better weaponry the composite bow made ofhorn and wood There were no camels in Egypt until the Greeks came The Egyptians suffered under the rule of the Hyksos until 1600 BC when they banded together and defeated the Hyksos thus beginning the New Kingdom Age New Kingdom 16001100 BC is called quotAge of Egyptian Empire In New Kingdom the Egyptians became warriors and conquerors They wanted to rule their land and the land around them so they could create a buffer zone to protect themselves from being invaded again Life in Egypt was similar to life in Mesopotamia Both were largely agricultural One major difference is that Egyptian civilization was more optimistic than Mesopotamia Life after death in Mesopotamia was more centered around hell Egyptians considered the after life more pleasant Egyptians saw life as basically good and their gods as basically benevolent Mesopotamians used to say quotEat drink and be merry because tomorrow you will surely die Mesopotamian gods were seen as malevolent who loved torturing people Mesopotamian oods were highly destructive Egypt s Nile would ood but it would nourish their land Egyptian women were held in high regard They were allowed to congregate together and enjoy themselves dance drink wine use perfume Egyptians worshiped cats but they also worshiped dogs rams crocodiles fish and pretty much any animal They also mummified these animals semiregularly Northern Egypt Lower Egypt Southern Egypt Upper Egypt Modern day Turkey Anatolia Cu is an abbreviation for circa meaning circle meaning AROUND Use this on test when you don t know an exact year
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