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The U S Since 1877

by: Mr. Branson Mitchell

The U S Since 1877 HIST 1378

Marketplace > University of Houston > History > HIST 1378 > The U S Since 1877
Mr. Branson Mitchell
GPA 3.75

Robert Buzzanco

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Robert Buzzanco
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Branson Mitchell on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1378 at University of Houston taught by Robert Buzzanco in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see /class/208357/hist-1378-university-of-houston in History at University of Houston.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Wounded Knee The name ofa famous indian massacre by US armed forces Took place on indian reservation near wounded knee creek in south dakota Considered the last battle between US forces and Indians Prime cause was attempting to stop the Indians from ghost dancing Freedman s Bureau a US federal government agency Created during the Reconstruction Era following the Civil warMeant to help freed slaves integrate into the US by providing servicesWas to help freed blacks get food housing and jobsGave out land and mules to some backsDidn t last long because it was considered too radicalAchieved creating education system in the south Industrial Workers of the World A labor unionAlso known as the wobblies Formed by and made up of socialist anarchists and radicals in opposition to the American Federation of Labor Goal was to promote the working class in the struggle to over throw the employing class Dawes Act Allowed the US government to take up Indian land and split it as it saw fit between each indian The stated objective reasoning was to help assimilate Indians into society US was now able to give away some of the indian land after moving them around many times into small reservations Open Door A concept of foreign affairs promoted by the US due to its lack of military power Concept was that all countries were able to freely trade with any given country and no other country be in country of that country Such a policy would allow the US to control other countries through the economy This would also allow the US to trade with countries that were being taken over that the US couldn t take over Dollar diplomacy effort from US to expand economically to Latin America and East Asian by guaranteeing loans made to foreign countries Goal was to create stability abroad while promoting American commercial interests Haymarket A event of industrial workers on strike turned into a massacre There was conflict between the police and the people and strike and a bomb was thrown in by an unknown individual and upon explosion set off a gun fight between police and the workers Anarchist were blamed for the bombing and were convicted in court Emilio Aguinaldo A Philipino Leader Became the first presidentHe was a very important character in Philiepinesindependace He helped a vital role in the revolution against Spain Also lead the resistance against American occupation of the Philipines Espionage Act act passed by US gov after entering WWI Aim was to prevent interference with the gov s military actions such as recruiting Basically went against the first amendment by prohibiting free speech The grange a organization for American farmers Founded after civil war due to agricultural problems in competing with the industrial revolution Originally was a social org started seller and buyer coorperatives in addition to its own banks and insurance companies Aim was to provide farmers with better loans and insurance Upkeep cost was high due to economy The great uprising also known as the great railroad strike was a roit on railroads Bosses cut workers cost so workers decide to stop working Bosses hire scabs to replace workers but rioters prevent National movementCreated knights of labor It was put down by state militia and fed troops Lead to creation of 8 hour workday and better wages Pullman A a town operated by a company of the same name that made train cars People in the town worked for the company were paid by pullman and bought all their necessities from Pullman Pullman decides to cut wages and workers take Part of American Railroad union and go on strike When company couldn t get state to break strike they got the fed gov to bring in troops to break Pure drug and food act US fed law that required inspection of meat also prohibited sale of adulterated meat or poisonous meds Act came from foul company practices being revealed by muckrakers such as upton Sinclair Lead to smaller companies going out of business Vladmirlenin A Russian promoter of Marxism and communism He as leader of Bolsheviks he became head of soviet state He worked towards controling Russia in a socialist economic society and spreading socialism League of nations International orgalliance of nations Created after WWI at the paris peace conference in versailies Woodrow Wilson strongly advocated for the creation of such an organization but was flawed because it had no power Mark Twain an American author Many of his writing depict his views of American society One of the most well knownterm coined from his writing is the guilded age The guilded age as twain called was a time when things in American society looked good from the outside but on the inside things were not going so well WEB DuBois An Afrian American author and civil rights activist Graduated with a doctorate from Harvard and established national association for the advancement of colored people Fought for equal rights for blacks and against racism Eugene Victor Debs An American union leader Also a socialist Helped found the international labor union and industrial workers of the world Nominated as presidential candidate for socialist party several times Overproduction referring to the excess of producer s supply over consumer demand something prevalent in American agriculture in 1890s prices for agriculture products go down so farmers produce more to make the same amount of money leading to overproduction After market demands are met prices drop even more leading to a market deflation and making money hard to get Bimetallism One of the populists party s most advocated reform Meant that the economy should use both gold and silver for currency at a ratio of 1 to 16Would help with the econmy s problem of deflation and scarcity of money by making more money avalible Social Darwinism idea of natural selection applied to social and economic issues That the rich and wealth will survive and deserve to survive while the poor suffers Surplus capital one of the causes of the great depression It is the money not being invested back into a business Occurs when all consumers have products and no more products can be sold Economy gets stuck Upton Sinclair a muckraker and huge advocated of socialism Wrote money books including the jungle which revealed the horrors of the meat industry to the rest of America and lead to the creation of the pure food and drug act Came up with EPIC end poverty in cali Wanted the gov to buy up closed factories and farms and then give to people to run them Franscis Townsend An American best known for his old age pension proposal and clubs which would provide a source of income once someone became too old to work He greatly influenced FDR s social security system The Lusitania a british ocean liner It was sunk by germanuboats Had both European and American passangers on board In addition Arms were found on board It sinking was used as a symbol in recruiting soilders to fight in WWI Dawes plan A plan intended to help the world economy recover The US gave Germany some money to invest and rebuild its economy but it used it instead to pay of reparations to france and britian France and britian then used that money to pay off loans to the US instead of investing and reparing their economy This cycle lead to the money ending up back where it began and was a failure Wagner act US legislation intended to help organized labor t limited what employers could do to workers within unions Gave all rights to form unions and created a process for it Allowed workers to be in unions not part of the company Buck vs bell a supreme court ruling that was in favor of instituting compulsory sterilization of unfit This included the mentally retarded for the health of the stateSeen as a way to improve the human race by getting rid of defective genes Fredrick Taylor a mechanical engineer who researched to improve industrial efficiency Father of scientific management and management consultant Employers would have him come in see how workers work and come up with the most effective way to work to produce the most output Huey Long senator from LouisianaThe kingfishsocialist Created a share our wealth program which would redistribute wealth Gathered many people in his movement that was similar to communism Open Door Farmers face a lot of problems while Rockefeller and Carnegie made huge wealth and made America powerful Which force many workers and farmers intro different kind of work with lost of independence surge to immigration and created poor working class against the new order This started the uprising like the Great Uprising Haymarket or Pullman unemployed workers marched to Washington to seek for a relief and population rose up to millions of Americans to attack the gilded economy The ruling class wanted to stop this movement and find a solution to the economic problems As a result US would move abroad and acquire foreign land In 1890 the first period America looked abroad where they are seeking for foreign markets for its raw material and manufactured goods This idea was called free trade system instead of trading with the colonies American wanted a system where all countries traded with other another without barrier and tariffs It became know The Open Door meaning the trade place freely as through open door instead of obstacles that certain countries over others This made US most powerful economic country of world because of the industrial output and trade Wounded Knee Indian genocide massacre December 29 1890 South Dakota It was a massacre of Indians caused by Poor Leadership of the army Poor training of the Army and a failure to communicate with a special needs Indian In the attempts to persuade the Souix Indians into signing away more of their Reservation because of the harassment Indians tried to avoid the army The US army or the Calvary surrounded the Indians at Wounded Knee Creek on the Lakota Souix Pine Ridge Reservation While trying to disarm the Indians an accidental shot was fired by a deaf Indian Black Coyote Hearing the shot the army immediately reacted and opened fire to all surrounded Indians Killing over 300 natives and many United States soldiers llfriendly firequot victims Industrial Workers of the World Founded in the 1930 s The Wobblies members of The Industrial Workers of the World also known as IWW was a revolutionary industrial organization who represented all workers skilled or unskilled black or white male or female Through methods including boycott strike and propaganda the Wobblies mission was to overthrow capitalism and rebuild society on a more socialistic foundation Strictly through direct action the Wobblies hoped to increase wages shorten work hours and provide safer working conditions for all people The leaders advocated the use of violence in order to see change in society Faced with conflict The Wobblies were overpowered by the federal government All member leaders were arrested and the organization was dissolved Eugene Victor Debs In 1894 the economy was a mess and the railroad stayed terribly unsafe Eugene Debs who was the head of the American Railway Union called for a strike for industrial workers in 1877 But the head of the largest American Union Samuel Gompers of the AFL refused the strike because he view that workers should worry about getting Better wage than the issues and railway strike was broken Mark Twain The American Famous novelist who created the term gilded age to describe the era after the Civil War Twain meant about gilded age is gild is a thing covering usually made by gold to trick the viewer that its something valuable but its not The gild describe it as a rotting structure Along with capitalism creating great production and wealth Twain is more into how is this impacting to the workers lives and attacked it Many workers lost their cultures and habits and had to move to the cities and living in poor conditions For Twain this is a rotting economic structure Paul Robeson A well known African American singer actor and scholar Very successful in college and earned a law degree but was prevented from fully using his degree because of his race Lead to him becoming a strong civil race activist His widespread fame as a singer allowed him to use his song to spread how he felt about civil rights His actions lead to southerners and the US government attacking him as a communist Being targeted as a communist caused him to be distanced by the black community and civil rights activists In addition caused his public image to great diminish showing what being labeled a communist can do Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere A concept made by japan that worked the idea of an area of Asian countries that worked together to support itself and was closed off to western powers It was portrayed as antiwhite supremacy and went completely against US goal of the open door policy Japan invaded countries like Korea and china and treated the people living there horribly Important because it was a threat to capitalism that gave the western powers more reason to go to war Anschluss Name given to the invasion occupation and merging of Austria into NaziGermany Happened due to Hilter having the impression that he is allowed to do whatever he wants to do due to the western powers policy of appeasement Part of Hitler s concept of having control of an area with all the resources to be self supporting WEB DuBois An Afrian American author and civil rights activist Graduated with a doctorate from Harvard and established national association for the advancement of colored people Fought for equal rights for blacks and wanted blacks to be assertive about demanding their rights Announced himself a communist and was removed from NAACP and was distanced by the black community Appeasement A diplomatic policy for avoiding war and conflict by offering concessions to the aggressive party Overall it means that the aggressive party is being warned to stop but no actual direct action is used to stop them It was the policy used by The western powers against hitler because they wanted to avoid another war Gave hitler the notion that he was allowed to do whatever he wanted to do Military Keynesianism A modification of John Maynard Keynes theory of economic policy around military spending The government puts large amounts of its spending into the military on weapons uniforms and so on in order to promote and expand the economy Consumer goods were not made but money would become accessible to the consumer Seen as good to the economy and very capitalistic because the private sector was still benefitting Even after war is over large amounts of spending still goes towards the military in order to expand the economy Would lead to US finding any excuse to continue military spending Fascism Combination of political and economic system A powerful central government effectively in control of the national economy which remains private There is still private ownership of business corperations industries etc which is why it differs from socialism However the government can direct these private businesses and corporations to do as it sees fit Such a system can be found in Nazi Germany Italy and Greece The US has taken up elements of fascism in order to change the economy llArsenal of Democracy A propaganda saying coined by FDR with the purpose of helping European powers fight Nazi Germany The US would create weapons for democratic countries to help them while the US itself stays out of the conflict Would lead to FDR creating 3 programs to aid these quotdemocraticquot countries cash and carry countries that buy weapons from the US have to bring the cash over and then carry the weapons back on their own ships destroyers for bases US have many old destroyers and would trade them to other countries for bases and lend lease US would lend equipment to European countries Yalta a wartime conference between the US Britian and Russia Lead to agreements that Germany and Berlin was to be split into 4 zones However Russia ended up receiving the less prosperous half of Germany Germany would be forced to demilitarize and pay reparations in the form of labor In addition Russia gave word that it would enter the war in the pacific front 3 months after the war in Europe ended The agreements gave Russia the short end of the stick which would result in tensions later on leading to the cold war Second front A front from the western side that would put pressure on nazigermany to split up its army Stalin called for such a front several times as he fought nazigermany back out of Russia However such a front did not appear until stalin had almost won the war and the germans were in bad shape because britan refused to provide help even though the US wanted to The second front appeared on what is known as DDay Howl a poem by Allen Ginsburgh considered to be one of the greatest and most popular work of the beat generation which rose in opposition to the conformist culture present However it was considered to be obscene until a court ruled otherwise A symbol of the rising anticulture and its challenge to the conformity culture Other similar images can be seen with jazz juvenile delinquencies rebels Truman Doctrine A policy from Harry Truman stating that the US would support turkey and Greece which had a fascist government The US would provide economic and military aid to these countries US citizens were under the impression that the US was aiding in the prevention of the spread of communism It was really meant to help boost US economy by allow the US access to these countries markets IMF The international monetary fund was established at beton woods after WWII as a currency stabilizer world wide This program was established in order to make currency available to stabilize the economy and prevent a global depression due to the degeneration of currencies like after WWI IMF is like an international bank funding world capitalism because the US provides the funds for it the US does this to promote its own economy by providing currency in return that that currency be spent on American businesses while choosing which countries would be able to benefit specifically those that are not communistAlso promoted US open door policy by also only allowing help to countries that will allow US businesses to invest Hence an example of US containment of communism as well as peacetime application of superiority World Bank A program established at beton woods after WWII in order to help countries either reconstruct or develop Undeveloped countries were unable to develop on their own and developed countries needed assistance rebuilding and thus went to the world bank to borrow funds The US funds the bank and controls which countries can take out loans specifically those that are not communist and promotes its own economy by providing loans in return that the loans be spent on US businessAlso promoted US open door policy by also only allowing help to countries that will allow US businesses to invest an example of US containment of communism as well as peacetime application of superiority China Lobby A special interest group of politicians and businessmen in the US that was led by Henry Louse The group supported JiangJieshi and his party in China which was also supported by the US They wrote over exaggerated stories about Jieshi in order to build further support for him in the US The group s member had many heavy investments in China and faced losing them if Mao Zedong and his communist party took over and thus put more pressure on Truman to provide even more support to Jieshi NSC68 A report on the Nation Security Council s 68 assignment In the first part of the report it is argued that the Russians are horrible In the second part of the report the economic motives of the US are stated which was to build up and increase spending on weapons in order to expand the economy The report is an example of how the government is building up communism the cold war and a false threat in order to justify its increased military spending which in reality is for economic purposes Marshal Plan A large program made by the US government in order to aid European countries after the war to help them rebuild It would guarantee economic activity in the US while making the US a creditor In addition it would allow the economy to get built up an example of US containment of communism Atomic Diplomacy Talks about the events around the US decision to use the atomic bomb At yalta Russia agreed to enter the war in the pacific against japan 3 months after the war in Europe was over The US had been testing the atomic bomb and decided to use the bomb against japan One of the reasons that the US decided to use the bomb was to ensure japans surrender before Russia entered into the war in the pacific in order to avoid having to give Russia a part ofjapan In addition the atomic bomb served as an example for the Russians what the US weapons are capable of doing This second reason was meant to keep Russia engaging in conflict with the US McCarthyism A name given to an era when quotcommunismquot was being contained domestically In reality it was the containment of the spread of democracy and ideas This was because virtually anything can be considered communist Anything that undermined or went against the traditional ways of American life was considered communistAt the head of this movement was mccarthy himself who accused many people of being communist including those in the state department This caused a large fear that anything different could be a threat which led to a culture movement towards conformity Mccarthyism fell apart when mccarthy tried to accuse military men of being communist Lavendar scare The fear and persecution of gays similar to the red scare during the era of mccarthyism Roy Cohn teamed up with mccarthy and went after many people accusing them of being gay which at the time was as bad if not as worse as being accused of being a communist People were labeled gay reguardless of if they were or not NATO The north atlantic trade organization is a military alliance between the US and many western European countries The organization was setup in order to provide mutual defense against attack by any outside agitator specifically the Soviet UnionThe soviet union assembles in opposition the warsaw pa ct o o lin quotI ri ci c u r lrllnr m 4 rlllinrrr TIA rlllinrrr n l nu A 39 in r t t 1nrlin n1 Imu rf f m Ll u u y Ha Fr A mrirl n y H nm fillii39ln Ha c m F d I m y uil yinInh in Ha k TIA mun y i r n 1139 huminn n in in Ha uil yinInh t t r to Berlin Blockade Stalinwas not happy with what he got from the war which was the crappy half of germany So Blocked off Berlin from the western powers which was completely located inside of Russia s zone in an effort to pressure western powers into giving Russia all of berlin Thus removing western influence from berlin Would lead to the western powers to form the berlin airlift in order to drop off supplies to the half of berlin that they controlled Russia did not have a hostile response to this and in fact ended up calling off the blockade Shows Russia was not all that powerful and was not hostile Mohammad Mossadegh A President of Iran Iran had lots of oil but almost all the money from it went to britan The communist party of iran wanted to nationalize the oil and mossadegh agreed Mossadegh was labeled a communist for supporting nationalization of oil and britian got the US to take him out put him under house arrest and put Shaw of Iran in charge Show the actions of the US and western powers towards keeping the open door policy and containing communism The atlantic charter A policy statement supplying the Allied goals for the world after WWII Made by the US and Britan and agreed to by the other allies The charter provided basic postwar organization policies such as no territory changes against the wishes of the people restoration of self governments It also supported more open door policies with free access to raw materials and less trade restrictions Finally the charter also called for freedom of seas abandonment of force as well as disbarment of aggressive nations Margret Chase Smith An American politician of the republican party She was the first woman to represent maine as well as the first woman to serve in both the house of representatives and the senate She became widely known due to her speech in which is criticized Mccarthy both were republicans and his accusation tactics George Kennan An American best known as the father of containment His writings was what inspired many of the containment policies during the cold war such as the Truman doctrine He also was a key member in developing cold war containment programs such as the marshal plan His importance was that many of the containment policies the US takes on during the cold war was developed by him Elizabeth GurleyFlynn An America labor leader and activist Was a leading role in the Industrial Workers of the World Joined the American communist party and became a chairman Wrote an article against McCarthy 1 Origins of Cold War Crappy Split of Germany with Russia US use of atomic bomb before Russia could enter war in pacific and US failure to que Stalin in on the bomb US Breton woods and other systems to contain communism US wanted to continue making weapons to expand economy so needed an enemy Also more open door US feared losing its power used Russia as scapegoat to continue expandingStalin s vision for Russia after WWII was not as expansionary as US says it was It was more interested in creating a buffer zone out of countries in eastern europe in case of future attacks on russia Invaders would have to battle through these buffer zones Expansion was more for defense and a gain of resources rather than to spread communismBoth wanted to rebuild after war and make sure Germany could not come back 2 Containing Communism and its evils from spreading Not accurate at all US just wanted to expand economically with military spending and opening up more doors to more markets and needed a reason to Greece Truman doctrine just wanted access to the market in Greece Korea Stop the communist from getting any more land trying to keep communist away from japan which was important foothold for American trade in asia Iran Mossadegh was a communist for nationalizing oil several arguments allowing iran to control its own oil would be an example for other countries and would threaten US open door policy as well as its own oil industry 3 US emerging from WWII had many options Strength in economy and was the dominant method in containment Militarlistically US also had atomic bombs to scare the Russians and other communist countries Politically US contained the majority of the power in the UN and set it up to still have influence when its powers weaken International Monetary Fund World Bank Marshal Plan United Nations


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