Western Civilization From 1450
Western Civilization From 1450 HIST 2353
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Week 4A Notes HIST 2353 From 1650 to 1750 Autocracy in the East England Stuart Charles II 16601685 Had no legitimate heirs so his stupid brother James 11 took over Both brothers were trying to juggle too much at once One thing is the religious crisis constitutional crisis and a geopolitical crisis Was seen as fairminded Had a parliament Married Catherine ofAragon but she could not give him children 1679 1681 held three exclusion parliaments and they wanted to exclude James II from being able to get the throne because he was Catholic Charles threw these parliaments out and decided to rule without parliament for the last four years of his reign This was against the constitution because parliament was supposed to be allowed to meet every three years at least The religious issue he typically tried to remain an English Protestant but he married Catholic Catherine ofAragon On his deathbed he took last rights as a Roman Catholic The Geopolitical issue France was a rising power on the continents Everyone knew that the Stuarts were weaker than Louis the 14th Charles tried to have an official foreign policy that was fine but he had a covert foreign policy quottreaty of dover 1670 where Charles pledged to Louis the 14th that at the opportune time he would convert the Roman Catholic and be in the hip pocket of France James II 16851688 Could not manage the three crises He was the first Roman Catholic monarch in over 130 years The constitution issue Iames called parliament immediately but could not get along with them so he decided to rule without them Religious issue Iames began plugging Roman Catholics into positions of power everywhere even in schools the navy and began to form two roman catholic armies He also invited a Jesuit onto his policy making council Allowed catholic orders to form He also tries to issue an Edict of Intoleration but the parliament would not pass it The Geopolitical crisis James was very slaveish to Louis the 14th The very year Iames comes to power Louis the 14th revokes the Edict of Knot which had given religious toleration in France and releases his army against protestant populations His second wife Mary ofMolin an RC she gives James a son June 10 1688 the birth of the quotwarming pan baby happens The protestants called it this because they thought the baby was smuggled in from somewhere else However it was a legit heir James 111 is born as a roman catholic This caused problems because now the catholics are scared that this will begin a whole new catholic dynasty So they revolt quotGlorious Revolution 16881689 Ask William and Mary of Holland to become joint monarchs in England and overthrow James II This was the last successful invasion of England with 16000 men James was allowed to skip the country instead ofbeing beheaded Convention Parliament this created a constitutional settlement that set England on the path of reform Critical provisions 1 Made clear to William and Mary that they were to be constitutional monarchs ruling along side parliament Religious toleration Catholics needed to keep it on the low Protestants were given fullon permission to do what they want Anglicans were the only ones allowed to go to Cambridge or run for parliament Censorship was largely lifted English Bill of Rights guarantees habeus corpus Kings and queens would no longer be able to have a standing army only parliament could Equot 9114 William and Mary 16891702 Protestant Soninlaw of King James II Took over with Mary during the Glorious Revolution Anne 17021714 Act of Settlement 1701 House of Hanover quotConstitutionalismquot vs Autocracy Autocracy in Germany Prussia Russia was made of two principles 1 Tsar is allpowerful If any of my nobility speak up against me they will be killed 2 In return for serving the tsar and his army for life all ofyour peasants became your slaves and you have life and death power over them Russia bad geographical location for being protected The Russians and Prussians never had the same kind of Western experience that we have discussed no Medeival period not reformation no renaissance There was no Roman Catholic church in Russia The church was little more than a small part of the state Also never experience feudalism ifyou are a king in feudalism you not only have rights you have contractual responsibilities to your subjects There was no middle class in Russia There were only lords 1 and peasants 99 peasants who labored under serfdom and were treated very poorly Almost overwhelmingly illiterate By the end of the 17th century the Prussians were a part of the international system Ivan the Great 14621505 Ivan the Terrible 15471584 tsar or czar comes from the word Caesar He and his ancestors were the Grand Dukes of Moscow There was an uprising against him and so he created the Oprichnina a secret police They set the city on fire and killed everyone Uprooted half the nobility and threw them in the Siberian river to drown Oprichnina House of Romanov 16121917 rule for 300 years Peter 11 the Great 16821725 Had a son named Alexi but he didn t meet his expectations so Peter had him executed Table of Ranks 172 2 to be a noble in Russia you either are a military or civil servant and eventually you climb the ranks and become nobility Catherine 11 the Great 17621796 Prussia Hohenzollern Became a great war machine over time Frederick William quotGreat Elector 16401688 FrederickI 16881713 Frederick William I 17131740 upset because Frederick 11 tried to leave Prussia with his best friend He caught them and had the best friend a high noble beheaded in front of Frederick 11 and then threatened to behead him as well After this Frederick 11 became a very obedient son Frederick 11 The Great 17401786 Patterns of Warfare autocratic reactionary empires that end up controlling large portions of East Europe The governments of the East are growing more cruel totaliatarian and autocratic while the West is starting to grow more tolerant War of the Spanish Succession 17011714 vs Great Northern War 17001721 War of the Austrian Succession 17401748 Seven Years War 17561763 Week 2A Notes HIST 2353 The Protestant Reformation Luther In 1517 posts the 95 Thesis to the door of the Catholic church because of the selling of indulgences and he decided to challenge the church to a series of debates For the neXt three years Luther found himselfbeing subtly manipulated into taking more and more extreme stances Also rebuked the 7 sacraments said that only Holy Communion and baptism are sacraments Average life span at this time was 27 ENNEquot F QU39I Rejected the clergy Rejected the notion of good works Rejected the 7 sacraments in exchange for only baptism and Holy Communion Spiritualmiracle transformation for taking the Holy Communion Eucharist not physical transub stantiation Throw out tradition and focus specifically on the Bible Rejected the idea that the Pope holds the keys to the Kingdom of Heaven Salvation is not through Rome justification by faith alone Eucharist consubstantiation quotreal presence quotPriesthood of all believers The clergy is nothing special each of us is his or her own priest and we should face God alone This is him mounting an attack on the entire clergy Thought people should forgo the convents and monastaries and be taXpaying citizens who make babies Fundamentalism scriptures alone Catholics in effect said ifyou removed the tradition and control and let people actually read and interpret the Bible people may be afraid and go into chaos Sir Thomas More predicted that this new way of thinking would cause the religion to break off into tons of different sects which was correct Lutherans ended up splitting up into multiple offshoots of Protestantism Ulrich Zwingli One of the first people who took the revolution beyond where Luther wanted to go He was originally a Catholic priest but within two years of hearing about Luther him and his followers stormed the Catholic church in Zurich and turned it into a temple of rebellion against the Catholic church Had the issues of Doctrine Had a problem with consubstantiation Says that Holy Communion is merely an act of commemoration with no physical or spiritual miracle to be linked to it Strips away religions seX appeal Zwingli believed that nothing should distract you from the book Smashed the statues of the Virgin Mary white wash the stained glass windows and walls replaced the golden chalices with wood ones put the priest in a black robe They wanted to simplify and purify the church Zwingli called his religion Puritans o Zurich Switzerland 1519 John Calvin 15 0964 arguably one of the most dangerous threats to the Catholic church This was because of three things 1 Predestination Calvin was obsessed with the vast chasm that eXists between God and us God is all knowing allpowerful but we are nothing but evil degenerate sinful etc Calvin says that there is a tiny heavenly aristocracy that can allow you to escape eternal damnation You must go to church follow an honorable vocation carpenter physician etc these things are probably a sign that you have been predestined to go to heaven 2 Calvin saw himself as destined to bring together all protestant groups Wrote The Institutes of the Christian Religion 3 Theocracy When Calvin took over in Geneva he wanted the church and state to basically support each other This is also seen in modern day Iran The government is the consistory form meaning the doctors teachers and the church get together and lay down the laws Calvinism leapt across international borders 0 Geneva Switzerland 1530s Calvin and his followers took control of Geneva and set up a rigid theocracy o Institutes of the Christian Religion 1536 Calvin tried to codify all of the beliefs of the new protestant religions Almost like a new Protestant Bible Predestination Theocracy consistory form of government Peasants Revolt 15 25 erastianism vs theocracy Luther was horrified by this uprising he wanted people to be spiritually free not necessarily physically free Anabaptists The real crazies of the Protestant Reformation They believed that you can only be Baptized as an adult Anabaptists means quotadult Baptists They took the Bible very literally and nothing not mentioned in the Bible was allowed Shared husbands and wives Another concerning thing was the constant social chaos boiling on the surface They operated under the notion that you do not have to make a decision about your religion until you reach adulthood meaning that social order for young people was not enforced 0 Thomas Munzer Munster Germany 1530s Catholic Reformation or quotCounterReformation for 17 years there was no effective counterleadership in Rome In 1534 they finally elected Paul 111 and he was succeeded by many other good Popes who reformed the church Paul 111 1534 49 Iulius 111 Paul IV etc Roman Inquisition Council of Trent 154563 Three major sessions of the Council of Trent which defined the whole Catholic reaction Catholic Counterreformation They took a twopronged approach 0 Admitted that the church needed to clean up its act in matters of education seX literacy abuses in the administration They reeducated the clergy kicked the concubines out of the priests beds get rid ofpluralism and nepotism Dealt with issues of faith The Catholics said they were right about religious issues Militantly reconfirmed faith and good works The clergy is a separate and exalted elite There are 7 sacraments Salvation only through Rome because the Popes hold the keys to the Heavenly Kingdom Holy Communion is still transubstantiation The Bible must be read under tradition of the church Creed of Pope Pius IV 13 Nov 1564 Society ofesus Jesuits 1540 founded by Ignatius of Loyola who wanted to murder as many Protestants as possible so he went to the Pope and got the Pope to agree to killconvert those who believe differently than they do Their second mission was to be great educators By the mid16th century you have the makings of an international religious civil war 0 quotSpiritualExercisesquot Week 33 Notes HIST 2353 The Seventeenth Century An Age of Transitions Some things stayed the same from the 16th to the 17th century There is still a very low life expectancy still a lot ofwar Four changes to note 1 N 3 A change in men s minds In the upper 5 of the population they become disenchanted They stop believing in witchcraft etc All throughout the 16th century you had thousands of people being burned alive for being accused of being witches This continues until the mid17th century Suddenly though this stops and for reasons unknown the witch hunt stops The last record of a witch execution is 1720 in Scotland We think that the cause for this sudden stop is because these elites were tired of the religious warfare and this sht was crazy It could have also been a result of the quotscientific revolution Another theory is that contact was beginning to be made with other parts of the world such as the African basin and not everyone in the world is Christian In 1600 an Italian astronomer was burned alive by order of the Church for noting that the heavenly bodies are much further away than we thought A major shift in the international politics of Europe A shift from a struggle between the Hapsburgs and Austria and Spain fighting for power to the French being the new power The Catholics are moving even more far to the quotrightquot as a result of counterreformation Calvinists began to get annoyed because they weren t included in the Peace ofAugsburg The Catholic League led by the Archduke of Hapsburg was fighting with the Evangelical Union made up of Lutherans and Calvinists There was also a lot of ethnic tensions The first phase the Bohemian phase named for Czech Republic and calling themselves native Slavs was tense with the German Hapsburgs The Czech s wanted to break out of the Holy Roman Empire and be independent Thirty Years War 16181648 Began as a function of the many religious and cultural passions but blew up into the fundamental shift that left France in power The Spanish branch of the Hapsburg bred themselves into extinction The Austrian branch of the Hapsburgs survive until 1918 and go on to fight Hungary Bohemian Phase 16181624 May 23 1618 the Defenestration of Prague happens Defenestration means to get picked up by the seat of your pants and tossed out the window This happened when the Bohemians decided to take action to show defiance against the emperor A group of Bohemian nobles broke in to a council room in a castle in Prague during a meeting between two empirical representatives and threw them out of the 60foot high window both survived King Ferdinand got very angry and decided to respond by starting war The Hapsburgs went into Czech Republic and sent in the Jesuits who totally destroyed the Protestant Czech culture 0 Danish Phase 16251629 Christian IV attempts to invade HRE Lost In 1629 Ferdinand issues the Edict of Restitution declaring that all Protestants in the whole of Europe must give back the land they had acquired during the Reformation that used to be Catholic Swedish Phase 16291634 French Phase 16351648 France decided to get involved in the war in 1635 with Louis the 13th as its King quotDefenestration of Prague 1618 Ferdinand II Hapsburg vs Frederick Palatinate Fred P went to Bohemia and was crowned king in 1619 Within one year his ProtestantCzech forces were annihilated at the Battle of the White Mountain and he was then eXiled Fred II decided to try to undo the Protestant Reformation A series of Protestants hears about this and start a full on war Christian Denmark A Protestant championLutheran who invaded the Roman Empire in 1625 However his forces failed GustavusAdolphus Sweden Another Protestant champion He is a dedicated Lutheran who in 16291630 took his forces up against the Hapsburgs and reversed the tide of Battle In 163 2 he was shot and killed in war but he had some followers who kept the war going for Sweden Cardinal Richelieu France Under his leadership King Louis the 13th decides to enter into the war Entered because they saw it as a perfect opportunity to destroy the Hapsburgs once and for all by intervening Even though France was Catholic they joined forces with the Lutheran Swedes and gang up on the Hapsburgs About 4050 of the population died during the course of the war Peace ofWestphalia 1648 Westphalia a small principality in Germany Peace talks began in 1643 but ended up dragging on until 1648 This is a more important treaty than the Peace ofAugsburg The treaty of Westphalia led by the Congress ofWestphalia was the first of the great secular international peace congresses ever The pope was not even invited to the Congress of Westphalia The provisions and terms say that all princes in HRE have territorial sovereignty Also says that Calvinists would be added to the religions that are okay to force your subjects to be The Peace ofWestphalia involved almost every country in Europe Headed up by France and Sweden who were the cosigners of the Peace France benefitted the most from this treaty Cuius region eiusreligio England Stuart two dramatic events in the 17th century one of their kings was beheaded His son was thrown out of the kingdom 40 years later There was a major shift in landowning patterns where middle class people began to get more power as power shifted away from the aristocracy The House of Commons representing the gentry and middle class begins to demand more from the House of Lords There is a religious problem as James I has a weak proProtestant policy Charles I married a Catholic Spanish woman causing more problems as they were seen as trying to destroy England s new religious freedom Also in 1629 Charles told the House of Commons to stop bothering him and the neXt 11 years Charles ruled without parliament This made him become increasingly isolated ran out of money and finally called parliament back into session Parliament were angry beheaded his two prime ministers and fought and lost a civil war Oliver Cromwell then had Charles beheaded with his crown on his head in 1649 This is the first time in history a king was executed as a traitor James I 16031625 under his rule along with his son Charles I quality of kingship went downhill fast James was smart but very dirty and drooled a lot as well as being homosexual Charles I 16251649 more clean than James I but he was a stutterer he was bowlegged and he never knew when to compromise Interregnum 16491660 Oliver Cromwell Puritans Commonwealth Protectorate Attempted to rule but did not do very well He died in 1658 during a storm Charles II 16601685 James II 16851688 quotGlorious Revolution 16881689 William and Mary 16891702 Anne 17021714 Act ofSettlement 1701 George I House of Hanover Week 2B Notes HIST 2353 Reformation Politics Germany and England Germany Holy Roman Empire In theory there was a larger entity in central Europe parts of Holland northern Italy Germany which was the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Within the HRE power was being consolidated at the local level However there was the fear that one day a HRE emperor would come to power and have more than just a fancy title and take over your small territory 0 Austria Bavaria Brandenberg Saxony Palatinate Bohemia quotFree Imperial Cities over 300 of these most importantly Frankfurt and Hamburg Archbishoprics ofMainz Trier and Cologna quotImperial Knights over 1000 of these knights who sovereignly lorded over territories about the size of the UH campus etc Charles V Hapsburg Became King in 1516 The Hapsburgs usually controlled Austria but Charles eventually became the first to try to create a dictatorship over the whole HRE Austria Spanish Empireinherited through marriage a huge territory which included Spain Portugal The western half of the Mediterranean Sea Texas California Peru Chile all down the coast Holy Roman Imperial 1519 Charles became elected Holy Roman Emperor Charles wanted to control all of Europe and create a REAL empire Religiously he was motived by the desire to burn Martin Luther alive So he became a huge threat to the Protestants and a huge threat to pretty much everyone in Europe The King of France Francis I starts to notice that everything around is being controlled by the Hapsburgs So he created the first opposing coalition from 1516 until his death in 1547 against Charles V Although they were both Catholic geopolitics always takes precedence over ideology Opposing coalition Francis I of France Valois some German princes Frederick the Wise of Saxony Pope Henry VIII of England Tudor Suleiman the Magnificent Sultan of Ottoman Turkey etc Luther in Frederick s protective custody quotAddress to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation German translation of the Bible etc Peace ofAugsburg 1555 Charles V plus other rulers princes dukes etcwithin Holy Roman Empire cuius region eius religio quotwhose region whose religion signed a peace treaty This bought Germany peace for 50 years This treaty did not include countries like Russia TWO PROVISIONS 1 Charles V would recognize the sovereignty of everyone s territory 2 Charles V also said you can follow either Catholicism or Lutheran leaves out Calvinism Do not mistake this for religious freedom The Ottoman s took over Turkey and built a huge empire between Europe Asia and Africa They were Muslim They took over Constantinople and renamed it Istanbul In the second half of the 16th century they took over Mesopotamia now Iraq and the Middle East They controlled all of that territory for 400 years until the first world war On two occasions they stormed up to Vienna 1526 and in 1683 and besieged it Main Eastern Empires Poland Turkey Russia In theory there was a larger entity in central Europe parts of Holland northern Italy Germany which was the HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE Within the HRE power was being consolidated at the local level England House of Tudor came to power in 1485 Henry VII 14851509 wanted everyone to remain faithful to Rome married Catherine ofAragon to his son Arthur but he died so Henry VIII then married her even though she is the widow of his dead older brother Henry VIII 15091547 in 1521 wrote in Latin a famous defense of the Catholics which led him to be called by the Pope quotDefender of the Faith Unfortunately Catherine ofAragon ended up only being able to produce a daughter and never a son In 1527 he initiated divorce proceedings against Catherine Catherine was the aunt of Charles V which made Charles V very mad that Henry was going to divorce her Was excommunicated from the Catholic church Edward VI 15471553 Mary 15531558 Elizabeth I 15581603 Henry s Wives Catherine ofAragon Mary divorced in 1529 Anne Boleyn Elizabeth beheaded in 1536 Jane Seymour Edward died during childbirth etc etc Clement VII Pope who was basically in the pocket of Charles V so would not grant Henry VIII and Catherine a divorce Cardinal Wolsey fired in 1529 by Henry VIII for not letting him get a divorce Thomas Cromwell Reformation Parliament 15 291536 put into power by Henry VIII even though he was Protestant because Henry wanted to get a divorce Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury Protestant who was later burned alive by Queen Mary Acts of Supremacy 1534 Parliament passes these acts which broke the English church off from Rome Said that the King shall be head on Earth of the English church They went on to selloff ofmonasteries convents chantries In 1536 Henry auctioned off 25 of England which is all of the church land in England In 1547 as Henry VIII laid on his deathbed he appointed the council of Regency to run the country until Edward VI was no longer a child a 9yearold He died claiming to be a Roman Catholic Edward VI 0 Council of Regency Cranmer Somerset Northumberland all Protestants Mary s Spanish marriage Philip of Spain Week 3A NotesHIST 2353 Lecture Reformation politics Spain and France England Tudor Edward V1 15471553 Council of Regency Cranmer Protestant Archbishop of Cantebury Somerset Protestant Duke Northumberland Protestant Duke etc put in charge of ruling since Edward was only 9 years old These men dominated the Council of Regency The Bible was then translated into English and everyone except women could read it During this period Protestantism began to develop a very popular following in England After 6 years 1553 Edward dies of tuberculosis Mary 15531558 Only remaining legitimate Tudor child Came to power very bitter Mad about how her mom had been divorced and put into a convent and very determined to bring the church back to Rome Revokes the Acts of Supremacy essentially abolishing the Protestant church and bringing the church back to Catholicism and Rome She died in 1558 of cancer During her reign Mary made three catastrophic mistakes 1 Tried unsuccessfully to get all of the nobles and gentry who had bought the confiscated church land to give them up so she could reconstitute the Catholic Church as a powerful land full wealthy state But these people were powerful and Mary did not have an army she just pissed these powerful people off The Spanish marriage Mary allowed herself to be conned into marrying King Philip II of Spain who was 13 years her junior He was using her as a political play to put England in the pocket of Spain It was very unpopular to the public and turned the people of England against her Mary was never able to have children by Philip Burned 300400 people alive who refused to be Catholics Most of these people were just ignorant nameless artisans peasants and commoners Several of the victims however were among the most powerful members of the Catholic church who had converted to Protestantism and would not go back This included Thomas Cranmer the former Archbishop of Canterbury and member of the Council of Regency This REALLY made the people of England angry Papism became the new word used to describe Catholicism a term of hatred N 539quot Mary s quotSpanish marriage Philip II of Spain Elizabeth I 15581603 Ruled for 45 years She never married Never accepted responsibility for any decisions was very vain She was a great monarch despite these things quotI Shall not open windows into men s souls meaning she is not going to force anyone to follow any specific religion She did not establish a principle of religious freedom She forced people to show up to church but did not breakinto your home ifyou were doing something unorthodox Elizabethan settlement Acts of Supremacy Uniformity 1559 Parliament re established the Act of Supremacy and created the Act ofUniformity These re established the link between London and Rome Reestablished that the King or Queen is most powerful and the Archbishop of Canterbury is the head of Church 39 Articles 1563 Elizabeth calls a convocation of the houses of the Church Basically these supplement the Acts of Supremacy amp Uniformity but put a wishy washy stance on the official religion of England Spain Hapsburg NO PROTESTANT REFORMATION IN SPAIN Spain was on the forefront of the clash of Christian and Muslim Spain had long been predominately Muslim since the 8th century However the Christians began pushing back16th century was a golden era for Spain and it has never been as powerful since Charles I 15161556 UltraCatholic Same guy as Charles V Emperor of Holy Roman Empire Spent most of his life in the Netherlands fighting the Turks in Austria Philip II 15561598 Launched the Spanish Armada He was Spanish and Catholic to the core Married Queen Mary of England Reconguista Moors etc Grenada1492 The Spanish Catholics overwhelm the last piece of Spanish Muslims in Grenada in 1492 Led to the Spanish Inquisition Patronato Spanish for patronage Under this the King of Spain controlled the appointment of every bishop in the entire Spanish empire Nunciatura Supreme Court SiX appointed judges appointed by Philip I to make all decisions regarding the Church Escorial Madrid home of Philip II Sat around depressed and somber France Valois In the first half of the 16th century things were okay Francis I 15151547 Struck the same hard bargain with Rome as the Spanish did Concordat ofBologna 1516 this agreement says the French Kings can choose all the powerful people in their Church in France in exchange for giving the Pope some money every year Henry II 15471559 Son of Francis I Basically did the same thing as his father Was faithful to Rome but bottled up the revenue of the Church Made one serious mistake in 1559 the French and Spanish sign a peace treaty During the celebration Henry decided he wanted to participate in jousting and was then impaled and it took him 6 days to die His wife was Catherine de Medicis a tough Italian woman She tried for 30 years to hold the country together but was mother to three unsuccessful pathetic Kings Francis II 15591560 Charles IX 15601574 Henry III 15741589 Cross dresser Very weak French Calvinists Huguenots vs Catholics Calvin sent his followers into France about 1 in 15 Frenchmen switched over to Calvinism during the late 16th century Had over 2000 congregations throughout France A civil war over the religions begins to ensue Many of these new Calvinists were very powerful people By the time Henry III was done reigning 40 of French had switched to Calvinism Central government vs feudal nobility provinces feudal nobility begins to rise against the government Valois vs Bourbon vs Guise Henry III House ofValois The House of Guise were led by Henry Guise who was VERY Catholic and did not care much about France and also were very powerful Henry of Bourbon was a Protestant and ends up winning the War of the Three Henries St Bartholomew39s Eve Massacre August 24 1572 the Catholics of Paris attacked the Protestants in Paris killing 6000 Protestants quotWar of the Three Henries 15881589 Won by Henry IV ofBourbon because of two assassinations 1 15 88 the followers of King Henry III and Henry Bourbon band together and murder Henry of Guise 2 15 89 The enraged followers of the Duke of Guise and stab the reigning King Henry III Henry IV Bourbon 15891610 a politigue By age old tradition the French monarch must be a Catholic but Henry IV is Protestant He renounces his Protestant faith and becomes Catholic His followers were upset by this change but he eventually announces the Edict of Nantes He was a very popular king and brought peace to France His family ends up ruling France for the neXt 200 years Edict of Nantes 1598 Henry IV issues one of the greatest religious freedom statutes in history This gave the Protestant minority religious freedom They were also given control of100 fortresses civil rights equal rights This lasted 100 years until Louis 14th revokes it because he is a jerk
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