Popular in Funds of Organismal Biology
Popular in Liberal Arts
verified elite notetaker
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicholas Petrusevski on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio209WeekOneNotes at Northern Illinois University taught by a professor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Funds of Organismal Biology in Liberal Arts at Northern Illinois University.
Reviews for Week4notesBIOS209.pdf
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/19/15
BIOS 209 Week Four Notes Evolution and Development Development gradua changes in an organism during it s lifetime 0 EX 0 From simple to complex 0 toward specialized form 0 focused on early embryonic stages of an organism small to special organism Levels Organism 0 repetition segmentation 0 EX arm vs leg change in timingrate of development Saturday September 19 2015 EX if structure starts growing sooner Turning in of gene happens at different times Saturday September 19 2015 Heterochrony 0 when structures grow at different rates morphology SHAPE will differ in the end 0 reproductive organs may develop more rapidly depends on species 0 results in reproductively mature adults that resemble juveniles PAEDOMORPHOTIS 0 EX reproductive organ genes get turned on early so never reaches normal adult Salamander form Genetic Level how to identify genes controlling development 0 find locus or multiple loci then compare their DNA sequences and make sure there are NO differences in their environment 0 Can also create a knockout EX inactivate a gene by putting in mutation EX Pax6 knockout mouse allows biologists to see which part of the sequence difference matters by putting mutations in different parts of gene and observing the differences in phenotype Cell and Molecular 0 cell differentiation process of cell specialization in structure and function cytoplasmic determinants and induction can be used to recognize cell differentiation Saturday September 19 2015 Genetic Level Continued 0 some loci affect spatial organization location and arrangement of body parts 0 much of this is controlled by homeotic genes 0 HOX GENES are very important group of homeotic genes in animals 0 multiple copies occur due to gene duplication 0 after a lot of segments form in an embryo genes are expressed EX DNA to PRODUCT 0 direct cells develop whatever belongs at that position on the embryo 0 Hox Genes are expressed in the SAME order that they are arranged on the chromosome 0 depends on RIGHT order and time 0 expressing genes in the wrong segments can cause serious differences in phenotype 0 antennapedia mutant legs where normally antennae 0 homeotic genes are highly conserved among animals they resist evolutionary change Pant Development 0 like animals plant development includes morphogenic different forms develop 0 in developing plants cells also go differentiation to make different kinds of tissues 0 groups of developmental genes are important in plants too 3 Saturday September 19 2015 0 programmed cell death apoptosis 0 occurs at SPECIFIC TIMES AND PLACES during development 0 vs regular cell death or NECROSIS resulting from injury to cell due to damage or infection Molecular control of gene expression 0 genes turn onoff actually make more less or none of their gene products 0 DNARNAProtein 0 Transcription factors RNA or protein bind to DNA and promote or block its transcription 0 gene regulatory network collection of genes that interact with each other indirectly often through RNA and protein products 0 can function both within and between cells 0 changes in a gene s regulation can alter development without the gene itself mutating important for development evolution
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'