Safety and Sanitation in the Hospitality Industry
Safety and Sanitation in the Hospitality Industry HRMA 1345
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shanna Daniel on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HRMA 1345 at University of Houston taught by Jay Neal in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 88 views. For similar materials see /class/208437/hrma-1345-university-of-houston in Hotel Restaurant & Institution Mgmt at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
HRMA Exam 1 Review 39239 Chapterl gt Terms Foodborne Illness a disease carried or transmitted to people by food Foodborneillness outbreak an incident in which 2 or more people get the same illness after eating the same food Warrany of sale rules stating how food must be handled in an establishment Reasonable care defense defense against a foodrelated lawsuit stating that an establishment did everything that could reasonably expected to ensure that the food was served was safe Immune systemThe body s defense system against illness People with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to foodborne illness Contamination Presence of harmful substances in food Some food safety hazards occur naturally while others are introduced by humans or the environment Biological hazard illnesscausing microorganisms that can contaminate food such as certain bacteria viruses parasites and fungi as well as toxins found in certain plants mushrooms and seafood Chemical hazard Chemical substances that can contaminate food such as cleaners sanitizers polishes machine lubricants and toxic metals that leach from cookware and equipment Physical hazardForeign objects that can accidentally get into food and contaminate it such as hair dirt metal staples and broken glass as well as naturally occurring objects such as bones in fillets Timetemperature abuse Food has been timetemperature abused any time it has been allowed to remain too long at a temperature favorable to the growth of microorganisms Crosscontamination Occurs when microorganisms are transferred from one food or surface to another Personal hygieneHabits that include keeping the hands hair and body clean and wearing clean and appropriate uniforms Avoiding unsanitary actions and reporting illness and injury are also features of good personal hygiene gt Chapter notes Foodborne illnesses 0 Defined as an outbreak when 2 or more people get sick from the same food 0 High risk populations O Infants and children Elderly Pregnant women 999 People with compromised immune systems gt Cancer gt HIVAIDS gt Diabetes Prevention o Contamination broken into 3 categories O Biological hazard causes greatest number if illnesses gt Microorganisms 4 types contaminate food and cause illness I Virus bacteria parasite fungi gt Certain plant mushroom and seafood toxins O Chemical hazard gt 5 kinds of special concern I Pesticides 0 Receive most media attention 0 Danger has been controlled by increased controls and legislative requirements I Contamination of food with food service chemicals 0 Are often poisonous I Use of excessive quantities of additives preservatives amp spices I Acidic action of food with metallined containers I Contamination of food with toxic metals O Physical hazard gt Hair dirt broken glass bandages gt Naturally occurring objects such as bone in fillets o How food becomes unsafe 5 most common risk factors O Purchasing from unsafe sources O Failing to cook food adequately timetemperature abuse O Using contaminated equipment crosscontamination O Poor personal hygiene gt PowerPoint or other notes I Spoiled vs contaminated o Spoiled implies a decay or quality issue O Easy to identify 0 Contaminates cause illness without changing appearance odor or taste O Nearly impossible to identify I Cleanliness vs sanitation 0 Cleanliness is concerned with the removal of visible soil for the surface of equipment and utensils o Sanitation is the creation and maintenance of healthful of hygienic conditions O Reducing microorganisms to a safe level I Infection or Intoxication o A foodborne illness is a disease that results from eating food containing living harmful microorganisms O Symptoms do not appear immediately 0 A foodborne intoxication results when toxins from bacterial or mold growth are present in ingested food ampcause illness O Symptoms appear quickly Q Can cause illness after being killed o 00 O May be present in foods naturally Chapter 2 gt Terms V Microorganisms Small living organisms that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope There are four types of microorganisms that can contaminate food and cause foodborne illness bacteria viruses parasites and fungi Pathogens illness causing microorganisms Toxins Poisons produced by pathogens plants or animals Some occur in animals as a result of their diet FAT TOM Acronym for the conditions needed by most foodborne microorganisms to grow food acidity temperature time oxygen moisture Temperature Danger Zone The temperature range between 41 F and 135 F within which most foodborne microorganisms rapidly grow Water activiy Amount of moisture available in food for microorganisms to grow It is measured in a scale from 00 to 10 with water having a water activity of 10 TCS food typically has a water activity 085 or higher M Smallest of the microbial food contaminates Viruses rely on a living host to reproduce They usually contaminate food through a foodhandler s improper personal hygiene Some survive freezing and cooking temperatures Bacteria Singlecelled living microorganisms that can spoil food and cause illness Bacteria present in food can quickly multiply to dangerous levels when food is improperly cooked held or reheated Some form spores that can survive freezing and very high temperatures m Form that some bacteria can take tiprotect themselves when nutrients are not available Spores are commonly found in soil and can contaminate food grown there A spore can resist heat allowing it to survive cooking temperatures Spores can also revert back to a form capable of growth This can occur when food is not held at the proper temperature or cooled or reheated properly Parasite Organism that needs to live in a host organism to survive Parasites can be found in water and inside many animals such as cows chickens pigs and fish Proper cooking and freezing will kill parasites Avoiding crosscontamination and practicing proper handwashing can also prevent illness Mg Ranging in size from microscopic singlecelled organisms to very large multicellular organisms Fungi most often cause food to spoil Molds yeasts and mushrooms are examples M Type of fungus that causes food spoilage Some mold produce toxins that can cause foodborne illness Yeast Type of fungus that causes food spoilage Cha pter notes Pathogens o 4 types of pathogens O Virus O Bacteria O Parasites O Fungi Viruses FAT TOM O O O 99 Food Acidity gt pH between 00 and 69 acidic gt pH between 71 and 140 alkaline I Pathogens grow best food that contains little or no acid a pH of 46 to 75 Temperature gt Pathogens grow well in food held between 41 F and 135 F known as the temperature danger zone Time gt After 4 hours pathogens grow to a high enough level to cause illness Oxygen Moisture gt Water activity measure on a scale of 00 to 10 I Food with a water activity of 85 is ideal for pathogen growth Foods most likely to become unsafe 9999990999999 9 Milk and dairy products Eggs except those treated to eliminate Salmonella spp Meat beef pork and lamb Poultry Fish Shellfish and crustaceans Baked potatoes Heat treated plat food such as cooked rice beans and vegetables Tofu or other soy protein Synthetic ingredients such as textured soy protein in mean alternatives Sprouts and sprout seeds Sliced melons Cut tomatoes Cut leafy greens fresh leafy greens that have been cut shredded sliced chopped or torn Basic characteristics O Smallest amp simplest form of life Q Can survive refrigeration and freezer temperatures O Cannot grow in food they grow inside a person s intestines Q Can contaminate both food and water O Transmitted from person to person from people to food and from people to foodcontact surfaces Prevention O Keep foodhandlers who are vomiting or have diarrhea or jaundice from working O Proper handwashing O Minimize barehand contact with readytoeat food Foodborne illnesses caused by viruses O Hepatitis A gt Virus Heptovirus gt Common source Human intestinal and urinary tracts contaminated water gt Food Commonly linked with it Readytoeat food shellfish from contaminated water gt Most common symptoms mild or no illness then sudden onset of fever general weaknessamp discomfort abdominal pain and jaundice after several days gt Incubation period 10 50 days gt Duration of illness 1 to 2 weeks severe cases may last several months gt Most important prevention measure Practicing personal hygiene O Norwalk virus Gastroenteritis gt Virus Norovirus gt Common source Human intestinal tract and contaminated water gt Food commonly linked with it Readytoeat food shellfish from contaminated water gt Most common symptoms Vomiting Diarrhea nausea abdominal cramps gt Incubation period usually 1 to 2 days ranges from 10 to 50 hours gt Duration of illness 1 to 3 days gt Most important prevention measure Practicing personal hygiene obtain shellfish from approved sources O Rotavirus Gastroenteritis gt Virus Rotavirus I llness more common in children than adults Common Source Human intestinal tract contaminated water Food commonly linked with it Readytoeat food shellfish from contaminated water Most common symptoms vomiting and diarrhea abdominal pain mild fever Incubation period usually 1 to 3 days Duration of illness usually 4 to 8 days VVVVVV Most important prevention measure practicing personal hygiene Bacteria Basic Characteristics O Controlled by keeping food out of the temperature danger zone Q Will grow rapidly if FAT TOM conditions are right O Some change into a different form called spores to protect themselves O Some produce toxins in food as they grow and die Cooking may not destroy toxins Growth broken into 4 stages O Lag bacteria is first introduced number is stable O Log rapid growth bacteria splits in 2 O Stationary just as many bacteria are growing as dying O Death number of bacteria dying exceeds number growing o Foodborne illness caused by bacteria 9 Salmonellosis nontyphoidal gt Bacteria Salmonella spp gt Common source poultry and swine gt Food most commonly linked with it gt Most common symptoms Diarrhea abdominal cramps vomiting fever severe dehydration in elders and infants gt Most important prevention measures Preventing crosscontamination cook poultry to at least 165 F for at least 15 seconds Shigellosis bacillary dysentery gt Bacteria Shigella spp gt Common Source Human feces flies transfer bacteria polluted water gt Food most commonly linked with it TCS food that is easily contaminated with hands potato tuna shrimp and chicken salads gt Most common symptoms Bloody diarrhea abdominal pain fever gt Most important prevention measures Practicing personal hygiene control flies Listeriosis gt Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes gt Common Source cool moist environments such as soil water plants gt Food most commonly linked with it unpasteurized dairy raw meat readytoeat food gt Most common symptoms uncommon in healthy people Pregnant women may cause miscarriage or stillbirth Newborns septicemia meningitis gt Most important prevention measures Controlling time and temperature Camplylobacteriosis gt Bacteria Campylobacter jejuni gt Common Source poultry unpasteurized milk unchlorinated water gt Food most commonly linked with it milk and dairy raw poultry gt Most common symptoms diarrhea watery or bloody abdominal pain muscle pain gt Most important prevention measures Controlling time and temperature proper hand washing Hemorrhagic Colitis gt Bacteria Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli gt Common Source intestinal tract of cattle unpasteurized milk gt Food most commonly linked with it ground beef contaminated produce gt Most common symptoms may cause kidney failure in the very young abdominal pain and vomiting more severe in the immunocompromised gt Most important prevention measures Controlling time and temperature Vibrio parahaemolyticus Gastroenteritis gt Bacteria Vibrio parahaemolyticus gt Common Source waters where shellfish are harvested shrimp other shellfish gt Food most commonly linked with it oysters from contaminated water O O gt Most common symptoms diarrhea vomiting cramps People with chronic illness may get primary septicemia which leads to death gt Most important prevention measures Purchasing from approved suppliers Vibrio vulnificus Primary Septicemia gt Bacteria Vibrio Vulnificus gt Common Source contaminated waters where shellfish are harvested gt Food most commonly linked with it raw oysters gt Most common symptoms skin lesions hypotension chills fever gt Most important prevention measures purchase from approved suppliers avoid cross contamination Yersiniosis gt Bacteria Yersinia enterocoliticus gt Common Source domestic animal soil water gt Food most commonly linked with it contaminated pasteurized milk tofu fish gt Most common symptoms vary by age group diarrhea is common gt Most important prevention measures time and temperature control 0 Foodborne intoxication caused by bacteria 9 O O Staphylococcal Gastroenteritis gt Bacteria Staphylococcus aureus I Most common bacteria causing foodborne intoxication gt Common source humans particularly in the hair nose throat and infected cuts gt Food most commonly associated with it High protein foods dairy products custards potato amp macaroni salad gt Most common symptoms Nausea abdominal cramps projectile vomiting amp retching In severe cases headache muscle cramps changes in blood pressure and pulse gt Most important prevention measure Practicing personal hygiene Clostridium perfringensGastoenteritis gt Bacteria Clostridium perfringens gt Common source soil water sewage intestinal tracts of humans amp animals gt Food most commonly linked with it meat poultry stews and gravy gt Most common symptoms Explosive diarrhea abdominal pain and cramping nausea gt Most important prevention measures Proper time and temperature control Bacillus cereus Gastroenteritis gt Bacteria Bacillus Cereus gt Common source soil amp dust cereal crops gt Food most commonly associated with it Diarrhea illness milk meat products and cooked vegetables Vomiting illness cooked rice dishes including fried rice and rice pudding gt Most common symptoms Diarrhea illness watery diarrhea no vomiting Vomiting illness nausea vomiting gt Most common prevention measures Controlling time amp temperature Botulism V gt I Parasites Bacteria Clostridium botulinum I prefers lowacid anaerobic environment cannot grow in the precence of air I Contaminated food usually demonstrates noticeable changes Common source water soil Food most commonly linked with it untreated garlicandoil mixtures incorrectly canned food baked potatoes Most common symptoms initially nausea amp vomiting Later weakness double vision difficulty speaking and swallowing Most important prevention measures controlling time and temperature Characteristics O Cannot grow in food needs a host to survive O Found in feces Q Can contaminate food and water Major foodborne illnesses caused by parasites O Trichinosis gt gt gt Parasite Trichinella spiralis Common source Pigs rats bears walrus In US wild game is responsible for more infections than pork Food commonly linked with it undercooked pork or wild game Most common symptoms Nausea diarrhea abdominal pain swelling around eyes thirst hemorrhaging fatigue Incubation period 2 to 28 days Most important prevention measure cook food to minimum internal temperature sanitize equipment O Anisakiasis VVVVVV Parasite Anisakis simplex Common source raw or undercooked seawater fish Food commonly linked with it herring cod halibut pacific salmon Most common symptoms tingling throat coughing up worms Incubation period a few hours to 2 weeks Most important prevention measure Purchase from approved suppliers O Giardiasis gt VVV Parasite Giardia duodenalis also called G lamblia Common source Intestinal tract of humans contaminated water Food commonly linked with it water produce Most common symptoms Initially fever Later Diarrhea abdominal cramps nausea weight loss intestinal gas Most important prevention measure Purchase from approved sources use properly treated water O Toxoplamosis
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