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Chapter 1 Notes

by: Destiny Hicks

Chapter 1 Notes Chem 100

Destiny Hicks
LA Tech
GPA 4.0
General Chemistry
William Deese

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About this Document

These notes cover sections 1.1 to 1.8 in the third edition version of Tro's "Principles of Chemistry: A molecular approach."
General Chemistry
William Deese
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Destiny Hicks on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 100 at Louisiana Tech University taught by William Deese in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry in Science at Louisiana Tech University.

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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chemistry 100 Chapter 1 Destiny Hicks 11 Atoms submicroscopic particles that constitute the fundamental building blocks of ordinary matter They bind together in speci c geometric arrangement to form molecules Carbon monoxide causes the heart and lungs to work harder resulting in headaches dizziness weakness confusion and even death Carbon dioxide composes 004 of the air we breathe Something as simple as an extra oxygen atom makes a world of difference Similarly water H20 and hydrogen peroxide H202 are very different Water is stable and is necessary for life whereas hydrogen peroxide is unstable can burn human skin and is used in rocket fuel Water will simply wet your hair whereas hydrogen peroxide will bleach it Chemistry the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules 12 Scienti c knowledge is empirical which means it is based on observation and experiment In a qualitative experiment you are noting or describing how a process happens In a quantitative experiment however you are measuring or quantifying something about the experiment Antoine Lavoisier noticed that there was no change in the mass of an object before and after combustion Law of conservation of mass quotIn a chemical reaction matter is neither created nor destroyedquot John Dalton proposed matter is composed of small indestructible particles called atoms atomic theory 13 Crystalline solid matter in a recurring order ex diamonds and table salt Amorphous solid matter that has no longrange atomic order ex glass and most plastics Pure substances can be categorized into two types elements and compounds Mixtures can also be classi ed into two types heterogeneous and homogenous Composition varies from on region to another Same composition throughout ex wet sand ex sweet tea 14 Physical change changes that alter only state or appearance not composition Chemical change changes that alter the composition of matter Chemistry 100 Chapter 1 Destiny Hicks Physical property one that a substance displays without changing its composition ex how gas smells They involve odor taste color appearance melting point boiling point and density Chemical property one a substance displays only by changing its composition through a chemical change ex the ammability of gas They involve corrosiveness ammability acidity and toxicity 15 Energy the capacity to do work Work the action of a force through a distance The sum of the kinetic energy KE which has to do with motion and the potential energy PE which involves position or composition is the total energy Thermal energy energy associated with the temperature of an object a form of kinetic energy Law of conservation of energy energy is neither created nor destroyed Systems with high potential energy tend to change in ways that lower their potential energy Therefore object with high PE are considered unstable 16 Meter 3937 inches the distance light travels through a vacuum in 1299792458 second Kilogram 2205 lb Second the duration of 9192631770 cycles of the radiation emitted from a certain transition in a cesium133 atom Fahrenheit F scale water freezes at 32 and boils at 212 at sea level Room temp is approx 72 Celsius C scale water freezes at 0 and boils at 100 at sea level Room temp is approx 22 Kelvin scale aka the absolute scale has no negative temperatures 0 K is the coldest temperature possible absolute zero 273 C or 459 F where all molecular motion virtually stops C F 3218 K C 27315 Derived unit the combination of other units ex ms Volume such as the liter and milliliter any unit of length raised to the third power Chemistry 100 Chapter 1 Destiny Hicks Density massvolume depends on temperature Density is an intensive property meaning it is independent of the amount no matter how much there is the density is the same Most often expressed in gcm3 or gmL 17 52131 The numbers are all exact except for the last digit which is estimated 235 has three sigfigs and 2356 has four However 00008 only has one sigfig In 0000800 there are three sigfigs Accuracy refers to how close the measured value is to the actual value Precision refers to how close a series of measurements are to one another or how reproducible they are lnaccuracy involves being not close to the true value and imprecision refers to how the consistency the numbers have with each other 18 Giver Conceptu n Find Sort List your givens Strategize Develop your conceptual plan Solve Do the math and cancel units as needed Check Does this answer make physical sense Are the units and sigfigs correct PWF


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