Wildlife Eco & Mgmt Notes Week 3
Wildlife Eco & Mgmt Notes Week 3 390
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 390 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Sharron Farrell in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Wildlife Ecology and Management in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Wildlife Ecology and Management Notes Week 3 91515 Discussion on scienti c paper by Chalfoun and Martin 2007 1What kind of paper is this PeerReviewed Scienti c Article 2What is the broad question being investigated Why should animals ever choose habitats that yield lower tness p984 3 What are the speci c questions being tests here What are the habitat preferences of the Brewer39s sparrow Note any hypotheses being tested here quotWe speci cally predicted that sparrows should initiate rst nests earlier within landscapes with higher densitiesquot p 986 4 Can you draw a graph of the main question or hypothesis being tested Preferenc e Fitness 5 Did they conduct a manipulatCexperiment Or mea existing conditions Measurements Landscape Scale Preference Quality 8 25 x 30 hectare study sites Density Reproductive Success Independent Shrub Steppe Shrub Steppe Dependent territory density Territory Scale Preference Quality use vs availability usenonuse nest size shrub steppe clutch size nesting attempts Nest Patch Scale Preference Quality use vs availability shrub steppe nest fate Resuks Landscape preference for more shrub cover and lower shrub density Quality nest survival NO a id NO Territory preference for more shrub cover and more potential nest shrub density Quality tness NO and YES Nest Patch preference for morAeshrub density and more potential nest shrub density Quality nest fate NO and YES Conclusions differences for habitat preferences seen across different spatial scales fitnessltgt preference for further study look at height of vegetation cover size of patches 91715 POPULATION DYNAMICS Why be interested popuations are the fundamental unit of wildlife eco and mgmt management typically working to deal with either r growth rate or K carrying capacity Understand Status of population How many Any past or current trends increasing or decreasing put pieces together to predict future trajectory ask the important questions declining need protection assess populations to measuring responses from management What is a population be aware of study area what you are studying and other factors when de ning population can differ between managing and biological perspectives behavior can play a complicating role Measures of Population Status how many individuals are in a population snapshot in time Assess by markrecapture usenonuse and useavailability count surveyoccupancy model for given area Population Dynamics Births Deaths Immigration and Emigration think of bathtub model with top of tub showing carrying capacity K How does this growth rate change over time N N1BI D E t1 AZNt1 N1 d 61 12er Births aka Natality birth rate number of young born Fecundity potential capacity for reproduction ex number of gametes of an individual does not account for actual offspring produced rate differs depending on what you are studying can be tough to measure for some species nesting monitoring for birds radiotracking mammals to nd birth sites and young Sex Ratios usually expressed number ofmaes per female re ects an element of the potential for natality disruption in proportion of males to females can signi cantly affect repro success of a population Sex ratio info is commonly used by Wildlife agencies when studying big game herds agencies manipulate ratios of bucks to does removed from population each year attempt to yield max number of animals harvested while keeping enough bucks in population to ensure sufficient repro effort by females in the upcoming year for polygynous species 1 male and 1 females sex ratios shift to favor the females in harvested populations for monogamous species 1 male and 1 female balanced sex ratio 11 is more likely for a maximum possible generation of offspring in terms of game hunting a sexspeci c hunting season could ravage a population even unharvested wildlife populations don t maintain a constant balanced sex ratio Deaths aka Mortality number of deaths aso difficult to measure ephemera nature tough to identify can use hunter measurement ook at age at death for animals killed by hunters measuring number of radiotracked individuals age at death aternatey can use survivorship Few wild animals die from solely old age typicaly 1 of several factors affects members of certain species widife population will be exposed to a variety of limiting factors over time causing an overall drop in population size some factors that have a large impact 1 year may be lesser the next the majority of population reductions from mortality factors remain constant Compensatory mortality one type of mortality largely replaces another while total mort rate stays constant Ex Northern bobwhite quail very cold winters cause many deaths from exposure fewer animals killed by predation mider winters mean more quail survive only to be eaten by predators due to limited cover stil often see same numbers of surviving quail in a habitat from year to year DHabitat to a large extent determines number of animals that survive in a population could be considered a surplus of animals being removed by mortality Factors that affect Natality and Mortality Natality Both Mortality lntraspeci c Competition Predation Disease lnterspeci c Competition Climate Food Availability Reduced habitat Reduces K Emigration and Immigration We often assume effects of emigration and immigration cancel each other out but this isn t always the case very challenging to reach accurate estimates Investigating Population Dynamics Age Distribution prereproductive reproductive postreproductive Age Pyramidgraphical representation of relationship between sex and age of individuals in a population commonly used to compare changes in 1 population over several years or the same 1 population within 1 year used by wildlife agencies for example to estimate increases in whitetailed deer computer models amp simulations can also more accurately re ect this info Life Tables clear systematic picture of survival and mortality be sure to look over and examine parameters of life table on PowerPoint slides Growth Curves Exponential growth ex bacteria in a petri dish NtZNOe rate is constant no resource limitation quotrselected speciesquot cannot occur inde nitely Logistic Growth dN rNK N dt K lndicates where the population is compared to the carrying capacity l density dependence resources limited growth slows as it approaches K quotKselected speciesquot Allee affect low population growth at lower population densities ln ection point point on graph where slope begins to decline can be useful when managingharvesting populations observe relationship between population size and growth rate often only a small zone where harvesting members of population can actually bene t Not all sex ratios are created equal not all males bees get to hook up with queen bee END OF NOTES