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Man's Food Notes - module 3 lesson 10

by: Haley Kairab

Man's Food Notes - module 3 lesson 10 FOS 2001

Marketplace > University of Florida > Nutrition and Food Sciences > FOS 2001 > Man s Food Notes module 3 lesson 10
Haley Kairab

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About this Document

These notes cover Module 3 Lesson 10 for FOS2001-Man's Food.
Man's Food
Dr. Agata Kowalewska
Class Notes
Man's Food, Science
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.

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Date Created: 03/15/16
FOS2001 Man's Food Module 3 Lesson 10 Notes      What Are Vitamins?   KEY TERMS: • Carnitine ­ a vitamin­like substance needed to properly  utilize fat • Coenzymes ­ substances needed by enzymes to perform  many chemical reactions in your body • Free radicals ­ unstable oxygen­containing molecules that  can damage the cells of the body and possible contribute to the  increased risk of chronic diseases • Lipoic acid ­ a vitamin­like substance in your body needed in  energy production; may also act as an antioxidant • Oxidation ­ the process during which oxygen combines with  other molecules • Oxidative stress ­ a condition whereby the production of  harmful free radicals overwhelms the ability of the body's natural  defense system to keep them at bay • Toxicity ­ the accumulation of a substance to a level that is  poisonous   Vitamin Forms • Three forms: ◦ Vitamin precursor • Nutrient that has vitamin activity but only becomes a vitamin upon digestion ◦ The vitamin itself • Found in foods and rich in the specific vitamin • Does not have to be converted through the  digestion process ◦ Vitamin antagonist • Molecules that hinder the utilization of a vitamin   Multivitamins and Megavitamins  • Multivitamin  ◦ Many vitamins in one pill ◦ Not discouraged by nutritionists ◦ Can be a good dietary supplement  ◦ Measured in milligrams or micrograms • Megavitamin  ◦ Large dose of single nutrient in one pill ◦ Discouraged by many nutritionists unless under  supervision of a health care professional   Fat­Soluble Vitamins Vitamin A • Fat soluble vitamins in the body are A, D, E, K • Performed Vitamin A ◦ Family of substances called retinoids that the body  readily uses ◦ Found in food from animal sources • Provitamin A carotenoids  ◦ From plant sources which can be converted to retinol in body  ◦ Ex/ carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach • Benefits of Vitamin A ◦ Helps eyes, cell differentiation, skin, and the mucous  membranes of your lungs, intestinal tract, and kidneys ◦ Works with immune system to create white blood cells  that fight foreign invaders in the bloodstream • Consequences of Excessive Vitamin A ◦ Excessive amounts can accumulate to toxic levels ◦ Overconsumption of performed Vitamin A is usually  due to taking supplements and is less likely to result from  overeating Vitamin A in foods ◦ For adult male: >900 mg is toxic ◦ For adult female: >700 mg is toxic • Effects/Symptoms of Vitamin A toxicity ◦ Hair loss, joint pain, rashes, muscle soreness, liver  damage   Vitamin D • Called "sunshine vitamin" because it is made in the body  with the help of ultraviolet rays from the sun • Benefits of Vitamin D ◦ Helps build and maintain your bones by stimulating the  absorption of calcium and phosphorus in intestinal tract ◦ Helps maintain blood calcium and works with calcium  to promote healthy teeth • Consequences of Excessive Vitamin D ◦ Not likely to get Vitamin D from food (except fish oils) ◦ Ingesting four or more times the RDA of Vitamin D is  considered toxic ◦ Symptoms: headaches, nausea, diarrhea, and serious  health problems caused by calcium spilling into blood and  entering soft tissue • Vitamin D Deficiencies  ◦ Lack of Vitamin D can result in abnormal bone  development  ◦ Ex/ Rickets ­ disease characterized by defective bone  growth ◦ Ex/ osteoporosis ­ disease where bones become  porous leading to curvature of spine   Vitamin E and K • Vitamin E ◦ Powerful antioxidant  ◦ Protects cell membranes and prevents oxidation of the  "bad" LDL cholesterol carrier ◦ Also an anticoagulant  • Inhibits blood clotting ◦ Ex/ vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, spinach, avocados • Vitamin K ◦ Plays major role in blood coagulation (clotting) ◦ Important to bone health ◦ Natural forms are not toxic   Water­Soluble Vitamins   Vitamin C • Aka ascorbic acid • Acts as a coenzyme that is needed to synthesize certain  amino acids • Considered a water­soluble antioxidant  ◦ Involved in formation of hormone adrenaline • Keeps immune system healthy by enabling your body to  make white blood cells • Excessive amounts not known to be toxic ◦ Excess leads to formation of kidney stones in  individuals with a history of kidney stones ◦ Symptoms: bleeding gums and teeth, wounds that are  slow to heal, scurvy   The B Vitamins • Coenzymes ­ which helps enzymes produce reactions in  your cells • Also need many B vitamins to metabolize carbs, proteins,  and fats • Vitamin B1 (thiamin) ◦ Needed for nerve function and energy metabolism • Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) ◦ Important for energy metabolism ◦ Deficiency is called ariboflavinosis  • Vitamin B3 (niacin) ◦ Coenzyme that helps break down carbs, fats, proteins,  and alcohol ◦ Found in meat, fish, poultry, whole grains, etc. ◦ No danger to too much too little can cause pellagra • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) ◦ Helps body produce energy from glucose and fats ◦ Widespread in food supply ◦ Deficiency is very rare • Vitamin B6 ◦ Found in 3 forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and  pyridoxamine • Each represents different biological activities of  the nutrient ◦ Mega­dose toxicity can lead to nerve damage and  impaired mobility • Vitamin B7 (biotin) ◦ Helps in activating enzymes to metabolize carbon  dioxide (essentially moving carbon dioxide for energy, protein,  and fat metabolism) ◦ Widespread in food supply ◦ Deficiency is rare and no diseases are directly  associated wit it • Vitamin B9 (folic acid/folate) ◦ Vital to making DNA in your cells ◦ Helps maintain healthy blood cells ◦ Reduces the risk of certain types of birth defects and  can reduce risk of heart disease ◦ No danger in consuming too much • Vitamin B12 ◦ The only water­soluble vitamin that can be stored in the body ◦ Needed to use certain fatty acids and for healthy  nerves and red blood cells ◦ Deficiency can cause anemia • People at risk include those on a strict vegan diet


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