Man's Food Notes - module 3 lesson 10
Man's Food Notes - module 3 lesson 10 FOS 2001
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 03/15/16
FOS2001 Man's Food Module 3 Lesson 10 Notes What Are Vitamins? KEY TERMS: • Carnitine a vitaminlike substance needed to properly utilize fat • Coenzymes substances needed by enzymes to perform many chemical reactions in your body • Free radicals unstable oxygencontaining molecules that can damage the cells of the body and possible contribute to the increased risk of chronic diseases • Lipoic acid a vitaminlike substance in your body needed in energy production; may also act as an antioxidant • Oxidation the process during which oxygen combines with other molecules • Oxidative stress a condition whereby the production of harmful free radicals overwhelms the ability of the body's natural defense system to keep them at bay • Toxicity the accumulation of a substance to a level that is poisonous Vitamin Forms • Three forms: ◦ Vitamin precursor • Nutrient that has vitamin activity but only becomes a vitamin upon digestion ◦ The vitamin itself • Found in foods and rich in the specific vitamin • Does not have to be converted through the digestion process ◦ Vitamin antagonist • Molecules that hinder the utilization of a vitamin Multivitamins and Megavitamins • Multivitamin ◦ Many vitamins in one pill ◦ Not discouraged by nutritionists ◦ Can be a good dietary supplement ◦ Measured in milligrams or micrograms • Megavitamin ◦ Large dose of single nutrient in one pill ◦ Discouraged by many nutritionists unless under supervision of a health care professional FatSoluble Vitamins Vitamin A • Fat soluble vitamins in the body are A, D, E, K • Performed Vitamin A ◦ Family of substances called retinoids that the body readily uses ◦ Found in food from animal sources • Provitamin A carotenoids ◦ From plant sources which can be converted to retinol in body ◦ Ex/ carrots, sweet potatoes, spinach • Benefits of Vitamin A ◦ Helps eyes, cell differentiation, skin, and the mucous membranes of your lungs, intestinal tract, and kidneys ◦ Works with immune system to create white blood cells that fight foreign invaders in the bloodstream • Consequences of Excessive Vitamin A ◦ Excessive amounts can accumulate to toxic levels ◦ Overconsumption of performed Vitamin A is usually due to taking supplements and is less likely to result from overeating Vitamin A in foods ◦ For adult male: >900 mg is toxic ◦ For adult female: >700 mg is toxic • Effects/Symptoms of Vitamin A toxicity ◦ Hair loss, joint pain, rashes, muscle soreness, liver damage Vitamin D • Called "sunshine vitamin" because it is made in the body with the help of ultraviolet rays from the sun • Benefits of Vitamin D ◦ Helps build and maintain your bones by stimulating the absorption of calcium and phosphorus in intestinal tract ◦ Helps maintain blood calcium and works with calcium to promote healthy teeth • Consequences of Excessive Vitamin D ◦ Not likely to get Vitamin D from food (except fish oils) ◦ Ingesting four or more times the RDA of Vitamin D is considered toxic ◦ Symptoms: headaches, nausea, diarrhea, and serious health problems caused by calcium spilling into blood and entering soft tissue • Vitamin D Deficiencies ◦ Lack of Vitamin D can result in abnormal bone development ◦ Ex/ Rickets disease characterized by defective bone growth ◦ Ex/ osteoporosis disease where bones become porous leading to curvature of spine Vitamin E and K • Vitamin E ◦ Powerful antioxidant ◦ Protects cell membranes and prevents oxidation of the "bad" LDL cholesterol carrier ◦ Also an anticoagulant • Inhibits blood clotting ◦ Ex/ vegetable oils, nuts, seeds, spinach, avocados • Vitamin K ◦ Plays major role in blood coagulation (clotting) ◦ Important to bone health ◦ Natural forms are not toxic WaterSoluble Vitamins Vitamin C • Aka ascorbic acid • Acts as a coenzyme that is needed to synthesize certain amino acids • Considered a watersoluble antioxidant ◦ Involved in formation of hormone adrenaline • Keeps immune system healthy by enabling your body to make white blood cells • Excessive amounts not known to be toxic ◦ Excess leads to formation of kidney stones in individuals with a history of kidney stones ◦ Symptoms: bleeding gums and teeth, wounds that are slow to heal, scurvy The B Vitamins • Coenzymes which helps enzymes produce reactions in your cells • Also need many B vitamins to metabolize carbs, proteins, and fats • Vitamin B1 (thiamin) ◦ Needed for nerve function and energy metabolism • Vitamin B2 (riboflavin) ◦ Important for energy metabolism ◦ Deficiency is called ariboflavinosis • Vitamin B3 (niacin) ◦ Coenzyme that helps break down carbs, fats, proteins, and alcohol ◦ Found in meat, fish, poultry, whole grains, etc. ◦ No danger to too much too little can cause pellagra • Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic Acid) ◦ Helps body produce energy from glucose and fats ◦ Widespread in food supply ◦ Deficiency is very rare • Vitamin B6 ◦ Found in 3 forms: pyridoxine, pyridoxal, and pyridoxamine • Each represents different biological activities of the nutrient ◦ Megadose toxicity can lead to nerve damage and impaired mobility • Vitamin B7 (biotin) ◦ Helps in activating enzymes to metabolize carbon dioxide (essentially moving carbon dioxide for energy, protein, and fat metabolism) ◦ Widespread in food supply ◦ Deficiency is rare and no diseases are directly associated wit it • Vitamin B9 (folic acid/folate) ◦ Vital to making DNA in your cells ◦ Helps maintain healthy blood cells ◦ Reduces the risk of certain types of birth defects and can reduce risk of heart disease ◦ No danger in consuming too much • Vitamin B12 ◦ The only watersoluble vitamin that can be stored in the body ◦ Needed to use certain fatty acids and for healthy nerves and red blood cells ◦ Deficiency can cause anemia • People at risk include those on a strict vegan diet
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