Week Three Book Notes Chapter 6-9
Week Three Book Notes Chapter 6-9 Chem 141
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This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Cassidy Zirko on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 141 at University of Montana taught by Mark Cracolice (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 61 views. For similar materials see College Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Chem 141 Prof Cracolice Chapter 6 Is Matter Continuously Divisible Book Notes 91415 6 What Patter did Lavoisier Investigate Regarding the Weight of Substance Before and After a Chemical Change 0 Lavoisier discovered that no air could pass in or out of a closed container using a rotten fruit 0 Saw a visual chemical change as a fruit in a container began to rot 0 The fruit always weighted the same no matter how long during the state of decay 0 Weight before rotting weight during any stage of rotting 0 There was no change in mass suggesting no matter was destroyed 0 Could use lenses as a source of energy to initiate the combustion of substances 0 I killing ants with a magnify glass 0 Curved lenses focused the light creating heat energy 0 Lavoisier decided that mass was conserved because the mass remained constant before and after the fruit rotted 0 A reduction in the number of gaseous particles leads to a reduction in total force because PFA and a reduction in pressure 62 Is the Composition of Substances Variable or Fixed 0 Lavoisier focused on making accurate and precise measurements 0 Looking at not just what was formed but also how much was formed as well 0 Proust looked into the difference between the two 0 000 00 CO I A substances is known to be a chemical combination of multiple substances like calcinated mercury which is oxygen and mercury is the ratio of the substances fixed or does it change with the amount of the substance present He started with 100 parts of copper which was then dissolved into sulfuric acid The added the mixture to a carbonate of soda to create 180 parts of wed carbonate Heating cause carbonate of copper to produced 170 parts of solid because of loss of water More heating caused carbonate of copper to turn into black solid calcinate copper and oxygencopper which was 125 parts Synthesized carbonate of copper was composed of 125 parts calcinated copper 180 parts carbonate of copper 100 694 oxygen and copper I if you start with 100 parts natural copper 99 parts of pure carbonate of copper Heating causes 69 parts of black calcinated copper because of water loos Chem 141 Prof Cracolice O 69 parts calcinated copper99 parts carbonate of copper 100 70 oxygen and copper 0 Thus composition of oxygen and copper in carbonate of copper is a fixed ratio 0 Separation of carbonate of copper gave 5 parts copper to 4 parts oxygen to 1 part carbon 0 It is based on proportions 12569 12569 x M E Thus M E m we could solve for the amount of O calcinated copper in 10000 parts of carbonate of copper using cross multiplication and thus find the amount of copper and oxygen are in that substance 0 When solving a problem always put the calcinate amount in the numerator position and the overall substances on the bottom 0 Start by subtracting the calcinated substance from the normal substance to see how much oxygen reacted O 112 parts of mercury turns into 100 parts of calcinated mercury 0 112100 12 so 12 parts of oxygen reacted with the mercury to make the calcinate mercury O I How much calcinate mercury could be made from 265 parts of liquid mercury 100 x O E 112x26500 x 237parts of mercury and oxygen 0 This can happen because of the law of definite proportions the ratio between calcinate mercury and liquid mercury will be the same throughout the problem 63 What Pattern in Reactivity is Found When Two Substances 0 Dalton research lead to the development of laws of definite proportions 0 Discovered related finding that got him thinking about a hypothesis that could explain such patterns as the law of definite proportions 0 His experiment went like this he synthesized and collected nitrous gas by pouring nitric acid into copper and trapping the gas that was released I 36 measure of nitrous gas reacted with 100 measures of air within only a few minutes the product had no nitrous gas or oxygen and the volume was 80 measures 2 A 72 measures of nitrous gas reacted with 100 measures of air and produced 80 measures of pure azotic gas with no left over nitrous gas or oxygen B gt72 measures of nitrous gas added to 100 measures of air oxygen remained unreacted C lt 72 measures of nitrous gas added to 100 measures of air unreced nitrous gas remains Chem 141 Prof Cracolice 0 Complete reaction of constant amount of one of two substances requires a certain amount of the second substance 0 Carbon and oxygen are usually in a 3 parts carbon398 parts oxygen or a 3 parts carbon394 parts oxygen ratio 64 What Hypothesis Explains the Laws of Conservation of Mass Definite Proportions and Multiple Proportions A compound has a definite proportion among the elemental substances in which the compound is made up of elementals substances in a fixed ratio Amount of substance X that reacts with a fixed amount of substances y will form more than one xy compound always in whole number ratios Dalton thought that atoms explained these patterns 0 The atomic hypothesis is now called the 0 Atomic Theory provide support for and intertwines with the Kinetic Molecular theory 0 Molecule Smallest piece of a substance that retinas identity of that substance 65 What is the Modern System of Using Symbols to Represent Elements 0 Modern scientists proposed a system of letter abbreviations 0 Symbols of Element The letter representation of the elements in the periodic table 0 elemental symbols consist one ore tow letters with either the first or only letter capitalized 66 How does the Mass of One Atom Relate to the Mass of Another 0 Dalton developed a system of determination of relative weights of atoms 0 Relative Atomic Masses scientists use a relative scale to express the weight of atoms Chem 141 Prof Cracolice Daltons Da used by bio chemists for relative atomic mass Atomic mass units u used by scientists who investigate the physics of chemistry The number at the bottom of each box is the relative atomic mass of an atom of that element Lesson 7 How are Electricity and Matter Interrelated Book notes 91617 Early humans knew of electricity Amber attracts light objects after rubbed with fur 71 How did the use of Electrical Current Lead to Knowledge of Polyatomic Elements 2 types of electricity vitreous and resinous Vitreous fur glass and wool Resinous silk thread and paper Vitreous electricity repels each other Resinous electricity attracts each other Alternative hypothesis there was only a single type of electricity Repelling or attracting from the absence or excess of that single type of electricity Positive charge excess of electrical charge Negative charge absence of electrical charge Volta created first battery that produced continuous electric current Voltaic pile consisted of alternating disks of silver and zinc separated with cardboard and soaked in salt water Relationship between electricity and chemical change Electrical current produce from a chemical change also meant that an electrical current could cause a chemical change Law of Combining Volumes volume ratio in which gases reacted were always a ratio of small whole numbers Avogadro s Hypothesis law could be explained if equal volumes of gasses contained an equal number of molecules this ended up being wrong Idea of diatomic molecules 2 hydrogen and 2 chloride molecules from 2 molecules of hydrogen chloride because they are diatomic 72 How Was the Source of Negative Charge Discovered Electrical current can pass through many substances 0 Ex table salt melted produced one sodium and chlorine Insulators don t carry current except under extreme conditions Current ows from cathode positive to anode negative Cathode rays describe substance owing from the cathode Cathode rays are negatively charges Chem 141 Prof Cracolice Thompson thought charges of negative electricity carried by particles of matter 0 Atoms were divisible 0 Plum Pudding Model Atom was made up of large sphere of positive charge that contained many small negatively charged particles as needed to have the total charge of the atom be zero 0 Electrons negatively charged particles 0 Oil drop experiment pair of electrically charged plates to provide uniform electric field oil drop fell into space between plates rose and fell based on electrical potential 73 How was the Structure of the Atom Discovered 0 Discovered by Rutherford 0 Nuclear model of the atom 0 Every atom contains an extremely small dense nucleus 0 All positive charge and nearly all of the atoms mass are in the nucleus 0 Nucleus surround by large volume of almost empty space that makes up the rest of the atom 0 Space outside nucleus is thinly populated by electrons total charge balances our charge of nucleus 0 Planetary Model of the Atom idea that electrons orbited the nucleus like planets Lesson 8 What is the Nucleus Made of Book Notes 91815 8 What Parts make up a Nucleus How was the Proton Discovered 0 Rutherford did an experiment with alpha particles 0 He split an atom discovering that Daltons atomic theory was wrong 0 Proton the first subatomic particle has a positive charge How was the Neutron Discovered 0 Discovered that mass was concentrated in the nucleus 0 High energy light ejected these neutral particles 0 Stream of neutrons would collide with wax causing a stream of protons to be released 82 Why do Atoms of the Same element Vary in Mass Subatomic Symbol Fundamenta Mass Location Discovered Particle 1 Charge Grams U Chem 141 Prof Cracolice Electron e39 1 91 09 1 03928 005490 Outside the 1897 Nucleus Thompson Proton p or 9 1 1 678 1 03924 1 Inside 1919 Nucleus Rutherford Neutron n or n0 0 1675 1 03924 1 Inside 1932 Nucleus Chadwick Atomic Number the number of protons that an element has Z Isotope atoms of the same element that have different masses different number of neutrons Mass Number A total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus A Z N Nuclear Symbol the way an isotope is represented Mass umber Atomic number Symbol or zASy Sy chemical symbol Can find number of neutrons in the nucleus 0 Mass protons neutrons 0 protons protons 0 You can do the same thing in reverse find number of protons by subtracting neutrons Neutrons 83 How are Masses of Atoms Expressed Atomic mass units u recognized unit that the masses of atoms are expressed in 1u 1 12 the mass of a carbon12 atom 1u6021023g Pure elements consist of two or more isotopes atoms have different masses because of different numbers of neutrons Atomic mass of an element average mass of all atoms of that element as they occur in nature 84 How do Chemists Organize Information About Elements Periodic Table elements with similar properties are in the same column or row Table is organized by atomic number Z Mendeleev noticed blank spaces in the table Blank spaces elements that were yet to be discovered Periods horizontal rows Numbered from top to bottom vary in length Chem 141 Prof Cracolice 0 Groupschemical families vertical columns 0 Identified by the numbers or numberletter combinations across the top of the table Lesson 9 How do Chemists Express Names and formulas of Substances Part 1 91915 0 Chemical Formulas represent the composition of elements and compounds 0 Algebraic representations of chemical 0 Chemical Nomenclature a system by Which substances are named 91 What are the Formulas for Elements 0 Molecule the number of atoms of the element in the smallest particles of the substances 0 All polyatomic molecules 0 There is only ever one oxygen in H20 0 Physical state is expressed by g gas DLiquid s solid 0 Most elements are solid at atmospheric conditions 25 C and 1 atm 0 11 elements are in a gaseous state in atmospheric conditions H 2 F 2 Cl2 He Ne Ar Kr Xe Rn 0 Only 2 elements liquid in atmospheric conditions Hg and Brz Mercury and Bromine 92 What Names and Symbols are used to Represent Simple Molecules 0 Compounds made of atoms or ions of different elements 0 Metalloids semiconductors that border the stair step line on a periodic table 0 Most formulas have two elements 0 Most compounds end in ide 0 Nonmetalnonmetal compounds begin With a prefix 0 Nonmetalmetal compounds don t have a prefix 0 Binary Molecular Compounds compounds formed by two molecules or a metalloid an a nonmetal 0 1 word of element in compound has a pre x of the number of atoms of that element in that compound 0 2 d word is modified with the su ix ide and also has a pre x to denote the number of atoms Chem 141 Prof Cracolice 0 Mono is usually omitted when there is only one atom of an element 0 H20 water and NH3 ammonia important to know 93 How are Names and Formulas of Charged Particles Written Part I 39 One Atom Charged Particles 0 A atom is electrically neutral 0 It has an equal number of protons and electrons 0 Ions when an atom gains or loses one or more electrons 0 Metalnonmetal have positive ions derived from metal atoms and regular ions 0 Cations Atoms loses and electron and remains with a positive charge 0 Sodium atoms I e39 Na sodium ion 0 The superscripts represent that charge of the element 0 Anion when there is a gain of an electron and the element has a negative charge 0 I Chlorine atom C1 e39 D or Chlorine ion 0 Nonmetal compound made of cations and anions 0 Ionic Compounds attraction of oppositely charged particles that cause a compound to stick together metal ionnonmetal ion 0 For naming ions in groups IAI 2A2 3A3 used the name of the element and add the word ion 0 I Sodium I Sodium Ion 0 Charges for the families 1A1 1 2A2 2 3A3 3 4A4 i 4 5A5 3 6A6 2 7A7 1 0 3rd period ions monatomic anions 0 Monatomic anions named with element modified with ide and followed by ion 0 Ex Chloride ion 0 Transition Metal Ions have the charge written in roman numerals following the name and then followed with ion 0 ChromiumII ion 94 How are Compounds that Contain Hydrogen an Nonmetal and Oxygen Named Part I 39 Five Fundamental compounds 0 Acid molecular compound that reacts with water to yield a hydrogen ion and an ion 0 Acid reacts with water hydrogen ion attaches to water molecules and nonmetal and oxygen form an anion o I HC103 H20 n Hgo C103 0 Oxoacid Acid that contained a hydrogen a nonmetal and oxygen that has all of the hydrogen ions removed 0 When an anion is formed it is named by changing the suffix ic to ate Chem 141 Prof Cracolice Acid Name Acid Formula Ion Formula Ion Name Carbonic Acid H2C03 C03239 Carbonate Ion Nitric Acid HN03 N0339 Nitrate Ion Phosphoric Acid HPO4 PO439 Phosphate Ion Sulfuric Acid H2804 804239 Sulfate Ion Chloric Acid HC103 C10339 Chlorate ion