week 4 notes
week 4 notes Phil 111
Popular in Multicultural Philosophy (Diversity)
Popular in PHIL-Philosophy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Trevor Meed on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Phil 111 at St. Cloud State University taught by Dr. Jordan Curnutt in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Multicultural Philosophy (Diversity) in PHIL-Philosophy at St. Cloud State University.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Week4 study group notes Start on third pillarofthe five pillars of Islam notes only on Islam forthis week 3 Zakat giving alms Gifts of money service to orphans the poor those in debt or need and other charity items Muslims must give money or service to help those less fortunate than them 4 Ramadan once a year duringa 9th month lunarcalendar healthy adult Muslims mustfast nofood no drink no sex from dawn to dusk It is a time for reflection and spiritual discipline 5 Haji every able Muslim should travel to Mecca and walk around the Ka ba A big black box in the middle ofopen courtyard Two main Denominations of Islam 0 SunnLandtheShVa 0 They have many differences between them like who the real successor of Muhammad is Muhammad did not name one when he died 0 Role of imam the Arabic word meaning in front leader have different views 0 Shi a trace theirimam heritage back to Muhammad sfamily The imam isa religious authority and a political leader ofthe community He is believed to be infallible and is Supreme leaderof Iran 0 Sunni imam is a congregation leadernot a cleric and is not allowed to be a political leader Two important concepts in Islam 0 Jihad to struggle to strive in way of Islam does not mean holy war 0 Jihad is also used to referto the fact that keeping the faith is hard work 0 Is also used as a way to defend Islam against nonbelievers o Shari ah the straight path most direct route to destination 0 Refers to the basic laws of Islam are Qur an and the Hadith Both ofthese are accounts of Muhammad s life They believethat his life is law The Hadith has some dispute around it There are different collectionsversions ofthe book which varies on place and denomination on which collection ofthe Hadith that the Muslim will follow The Sunni idea of politics in Islam 0 quotPolitical theory of Islam written by Abu l A la Mawdudi First principle of Islamictheory 0 People must surrender all rights of legislation and authority No human has any claim in his own right to make laws or command obedience from anyone else No one has a duty to obey such commands that come from other humans Applications offirst principle 0 Who is sovereign Who has political power and authority 1 God is sole sovereign He is supreme and only political powerin the Islamicstate The people have no real political power 0 Who makesauthenticlaws 2 God all genuine law comes from God Legislation cannot be created or altered independently of his will Humans can make rules and e nforce them but these are not laws o Is there an obligation to obey the law 3 The people owe obligation to a government that truly enforces God s laws and act as His agent There is no obligation to obey purely humancreated rules Nature and Characteristics ofthe Islamic state 1 Antithesis ofthe western democracy o In a democracy sovereignty and powers of legislation belong to the people Law is a product of popular desires and whims no matter how immoral and unjust they may be And no matter how just or faira law is if people do not like it the law is removed 2 A Theocracy or quotTheoDemocracy o Divine democratic government Ultimate powerin God Democratic aspect is that every Muslims has the right to interpret the law of God when no explicit command exists in the Shari ah However if a law is explicitly stated no one could change it not even all of the Muslims o Mawdudi considers on abjection God has deprived people oftheir freedom especially the freedom to thinkfor ourselves and make theirown decisions on what they think should be law 0 Mawdudi s Reply God s exclusive authority protects human freedom How free should people be Liberty limiting principles 0 People place a lot ofvalue on freedom people think it is the most important thing Rule 5 and regulations prevent ourfreedom quotLegal rules place limits on peoples freedom Why reduce people s freedom 0 3 moral reasons to restrictindividual liberty s 1 The principle of legal paternalism 0 Restrictions on personal freedom to prevent people from selfharm o Pater Latin for fathe r to act pare ntlike towards others Parents restrict kids freedom It isfor your own good 0 Why should we not be allowed to hurtourselves 0 God is the fatherfigure that stops our selfdestructive behavior quotsave man from inventing his own ruin 0 Why is the Islamicstate Parentalistic 0 Great mass of people are incapable of perceiving their own good people don t know what is good for themselves Alcohol Prohibition is a good example ofthisthat occurred in America 2 The Harm principle 0 Restrictions on personal freedom to prevent peoplefrom harming others No arguments on this one they debate ifthis is the only reason tojustify restrictions on freedom 3 The legal moralism 0 Restrictions on people to prevent people from immoral conduct quotvictimless crime this principle is highly controversial Things like Prostitution Sodom Public Nudity Who is the victim Divine limits 0 Principles and commands laid down by God to help guide people to live a life ofequanimity and moderation o Economiclife Zakah the prohibition on interest loansand gambling 0 Family life Pardah Persianor Hijab Arabic literally mean quotscreenquot or quotcurtainquotthe covering of women in public has many differentforms of how much they should be covered likejust the face or the whole body The reason is pate rnalistic to promote modesty dignity and honor of women 0 quotConditional Polygamy a Muslim is able to have up to 4 wives with one condition all wives must be treated equally emotional and economically Muslim women not permitted more than one husband Islamicstate is universal and allembracing o No right to personal privacy Islamic state is in every part of human lives Founded on God s regulation of human life there is no part of human life experience and activity immune from God 0 Right to privacy 0 US Legal system the right to privacy protects citizensfrom government intrustion into private intimate aspects oftheirlives 0 Right to privacy protects abortion and right to marry anyone regardless of sex or anything 0 Abortion and Marriage in Islam 0 Rejects abortion unless motherwould diefrom the child birth 0 Not allowed to marry unbelievers atheists or polytheists Muslims are permitted to marry Christians and Jews is rare