Energy Metabolism MSCI 311
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katie Hathaway on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MSCI 311 at University of South Carolina taught by Griffen in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see Biology of Marine Organisms in Marine Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Energy metabolism Oceans are warming and due to the fact warm water holds less oxygen this leads to smaller sh in all worlds oceans The larger the females the more eggs to allow population increase A decrease in size will lower Build up of atmospheric oxygen over geologic time Life evolved without oxygen until cyanobacteria produced it through photosynthesis about 22 mya Surface to volume ratio of a cell is important for material transfer The larger the volume of the cell the smaller the surface area This prevents material from traveling through cell quickly Nutrients Micronutrients and vitamins cannot be synthesized by organisms must be obtained from environment lron limitation low primary production due to limiting factor mostly from dust that blows from land Thermodynamics controls all metabolic processes 0 Energy is constant can not be created or destroyed Amount of useful energy decreases when energy transformations occur entropy increases Photosynthesis highest where nutrients are abundant coastal areas from land runoff upwelling Chemosynthesis may have been the original source of energy for life Use methane from black smokers or hydrogen sul des Found symbiotic bacteria in mussels using hydrogen Energy transfer is imperfect Some energy used for biological processes catabolism etc 0 Some lost as heat to environment Energy gained Sunlight energy reaches earth or chemical energy harnessed Producers secure and convert to forms of energy sugars that can support cellular work Energy lost With each conversion some lost as heat Lower mass of organisms as move up the food chain Bacteria 3050 of oceans primary production DOM eaten by bacteria micro agellates then consume bacteria and zooplankton eat these Jellies appear to be increasing across most of the world due to 0 increase in nutrients from river runoff increased primary production 0 As water temperature increases metabolic rates increase 0 Reduction of predators due to over shing and bycatch Change in marine web microbial loop now includes jellies Mucus has higher CN ratio than typically found More carbon dioxide because it cant sustain bacterial growth Endergonic requires energy Exergonic produces energy Activation energy energy required to Align reactive chemical groups Destabilize electrical charges 0 Break bonds Enzymes are proteins that speed this process Puts chemicals in an 39activation state 0 Brings low concentration chemicals together Aligns reactive chemical groups Shuts out water molecules lnduces t between substrate molecules Allosteric activators and cofactors As metabolic rates increase they will need to consume more energy Phosphorylation any phosphate group transfer ATP ADP AMP adenine ribose Metabolism Metabolic pathways enzymemediated sequence of reactions in cells Biosynthetic anabolic require energy input Degradative catabolic net release of energy Oxidationreduction reactions redox are coupled Oxidation reduced compound reducing agentoxidized lose electronscompound is oxidized Reduction oxidized compound oxidizing agentreduced gain electronscompound is reduced Aerobic respiration always occurs by default if oxygen is present because more energy is released during redox than any other entropy increases as much as possible Slide 12 of professor lecture Molecules involved in respiration ATP Glucose etc Glycolysis starts in cytoplasm aerobic completed in mitochondrion Differences in amount of ATP produced Energyrequiring glucose ATP l glucose6phosphate ATP I fructose16biphosphate l 2 PGAL Slide 16 of professor lecture PGAL NAD and Pl 13bisphosphoglycerate ADP I 3 phosphoglycerate l 2phosphoglycerate H20 l PEP ADP l pyruvate Between 2 PGAL 4 ATP produced enzymes inside uid of inner compartment Krebs Cycle Two pyruvates cross the inner mitochondrial membrane 8 NADH 2 FADH2 2 ATP The 6 carbon atoms from 2 pyruvates diffuse out of the mitochondrion then out of the cell as 6 C02 Slide 21 of lecture coenzyme A helps break pyruvate to acetyleCoA Electron transport chain is embedded within inner membrane NADH and FADH2 give up electrons to transfer chains Electrons transferred through and unbound hydrogen is shuttled across membrane to outer compartment Oxygen is the nal acceptor of electrons Hydrogen concentration and electric gradients now exist H follows gradients through interior of ATP synthase to inner compartment drives formation ADP P ATP 36 ATP produced from entire process class example pathogens and pollutants impair blue crab metabolic processes aerobic respiration not enough oxygen present to break down glucose Anaerobic respiration Alcoholic fermentation algae biodiesel production Glycolysis produces 2 ATP and pyruvate then 2 acetaldehyde l 2 ethanol Lactate fermentation Glycolysis produces 2 ATP and pyruvate then 2 lactate Build up of atmospheric oxygen over geologic time allowed for grater energy to be harnessed 36 compared to 2 ATP Allowed for grater evolution of life Fish will be smaller due to less oxygen metabolic rate low Slide 39 different food intake effects on process different levels of efficiencies sh oil more efficient than increasing shmeal Lecture 6 podcast What are the current barriers to the commercialization of products derived from algae The price of production is high Need to increase production facilities increase in funding and public support What federal state or local policy changes could help accelerate the algae industry Recognize potential role for biofuel biomass production for animal feeds more production per unit of freshwater How does the water crisis impact algae production Certain regions may not be able to support production due to low water supply It can grow on saline water and waste water that may have not been used otherwise Where do you see the algae industry in 10 years Society and policy makers recognizing and providing funding leads to 30100 acre farms around the world International race to bring cost down What is one thing you would change about the algae industry lncrease funding for 10 years
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