The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom (I)
The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom (I) CHEM 101
Popular in Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Piper Daniels on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mrs. Leung in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 60 views. For similar materials see Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements in Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
CHAPTER 3 NOTES 932015 1 Interference is the interaction of waves 2 Constructive interference when waves interact so that they add to make a longer wave a The waves must be inphase two waves crests are aligned llRf A2 U 3 Destructive interference when two waves interact to cancel each other out a The waves must be out of phase crest and trough are aligned A71 A1A2 4 Waves slightly out of phase will have a combination of constructive and destructive interference 1 Diffraction waves bend around obstacles or slits that are the same size as the x of the wave 2 Wave articles wave Irr ii quot in Double Slit Experiment I dark destructive interference wave light constructive interference l a n rel The only way we would have been able to see light behind the slit is because light has wave properties Since the double slit experiment showed light directly behind the slit the light must have diffracted bent and formed two sources of light to form the diffraction pattern constructive and destructive interference only waves can diffract and interference Particle 1 Light also has particle properties 2 When light is shined onto a metal surface an electron is emitted photoelectric effect a This is a particle characteristic matterlike 3 There is a minimum frequencywavelength of light required to dislodge the electron a This is known as the threshold frequency b Does not matter the duration or intensity amplitude if the light was below the threshold of frequency no electron was dislodged 4 Einstein proposed that light is made of photonsquantaparticles that carry the energy from the light 5 Ephotonhv Ephoton energy per 1 photon h Plank s constant 6626e34 Js v frequency 1s cvx Ephotonhc7t Eav directly proportional d Ea1x inversely proportional 6 Electromagnetic spectrum Radiowaves Microwaves Gamma Rays a as we go from left to right there is an increase in v b as we go from left to right there is an increase in E 96 EX What is the energy in J of a photon with the frequency of radiation of 1 5e35 Hz Ephotonhv6626e34 Js 1 5e35 1s 9939J 99J Ex How much energy does 1 mol of photon release whose frequency is 15e35 Hz 1 mole 602214e23 Ephoton9939 J for 1 photon Etotal Ephoton602214e231mol9939J602214e231mol60e25 Jmol Emission Spectrum 1 When an atom or molecule absorbs energy light heat or electricity the system s atom or molecule energy increases less stable a Eventually the energy is released in the form of light due to the instability of the added energy 2 Each element releases a different color wavelength of light a Same elements emitted the same color of light 3 Emission Spectrum a Not a continuous Spectrum 4 A pattern of emitted light emission spectrum a Discrete light was emitted not continuous b Each element has a different emission spectrum c This allows the emission spectrum to be used to identify flame test i The flames of different elements are different colors because they have different emission spectrums ii This means you can tell what the element is simply by the flame color Bohr Model to explain the observed emission spectrum 1 Electrons orbit around the nucleus 2 Electrons exist at fixed distances from the nucleus 3 Energy of each orbit is fixed As the electron goes further from the nucleus the energy increases E39y 4 Excitation electrons are promoted to orbits further from the nucleus Absorbing energy is required 5 Relaxation electrons transition from orbits further from the nucleus to an orbit closer to the nucleus Change in EnergyEphotonhc7t Change in I Ellrrrge irr Ererrr Erergr Bohr Model 1 Bohr model explains why specific wavelength of light is emitted while some are not in the emission spectrum there are discrete E levels Double Slit Experiment Electrons I rierle deetruetiee interference eleetrerte EI E l 3 tieuhle elit light enetruetiee interierertee diffreetien pattern PhotoElectric Effect 1 Electron was dislodged particle like Heisenberg Indeterminacy Principle the energy and location of an electron cannot both be known with absolute certainty Emission Spectrum the energy of the electron in an atom can be determined Ehclx Wave functions orbitals describing the probability of an electron s location You will only be able to know either the location OR the energy very well not both see above
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