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Gen. Psychology Notes (Week Four)

by: Jovani Jones

Gen. Psychology Notes (Week Four) PSYCH 1000 - 02

Jovani Jones
GPA 3.2
General Psychology
Dennis Miller

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About this Document

General Psychology
Dennis Miller
Class Notes
General Psychology, Miller, Psychology
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jovani Jones on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 02 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Wednesday September 16 2015 42 What is Sleep Arousal is regulated by the activity of neurons from the hindbrain through the forebrain o Hypocretinorexin o Arousal levels are high when this chemical is released 0 Signals are sent to message the body to be awakealert o Adenosine o Arousal levels are low when this chemical is released 0 Signals are sent to message the body to be calmtired Sleep can be studied through electroencephalogram EEG that measures the brain s electrical activity EEG activity changes throughout the night 0 Electrodes measure the brain activity by monitoring numerous collective action potentials 1 Frequency The number of waves per unit of time 2 Amplitude The size of the overall wave 0 Neural synchrony Simple wave 0 Neural desynchrony ComplexInvolved wave REM Sleep SlowWave Sleep EEG desynchrony rapid irregular waves EEG synchrony quotslow waves Lack of muscle tone Moderate muscle tone Rapid eye movements Slow or absent eye movements Penile erection of vaginal secretion Lack of genital activity Weird narrative dreams quotBoringquot dreams There are five stages of sleep 1 Stage 1 a Produces theta waves b Easily aroused from stage 1 c Denial of sleeping if woken up from the light sleep d Might see images of shapes or feel sensations of falling 2 Stage 2 a Produces the Sleep spindle and Kcomplex b Breathing is regulated upon entry c Less sensitive to external stimulation d Theta waves are shown but spindles and kcomplexes appear on occasion with abrupt noises 3 Stage 3 a Produces delta waves b Deep sleep occurs c Very hard to wake up in this stage 4 Stage 4 a Produces delta waves b Deep sleep occurs c Very hard to wake up in this stage 5 REM a Produces Beta waves b Rapid eye movements c More episodic dreams occur d Some brain regions are more active in REM than when awake Because Stages 3 and 4 are so similar they are often grouped together Why do we dream Psychodynamic Theory Freud Dreams are the insights into unconscious conflict Compare the dream s manifest what is observed in the dream vs the latent content what it really means Memory Integration Hypothesis Dreams are the way to integrate and store information that Is experienced through the day ActivationSynthesis Hypothesis Dreams reflect sleeping mind quotmaking sense of random brain activity Evolved ThreatRehearsal Theory Dreams will stimulate threatening events to help develop coping strategies iClicker Questions 1 Our cycles of wakefulness and sleepiness depend mainly on a Changes in heart rate and blood pressure b Detection of changes in magnetic fields c Hormones regulated by the adrenal gland d Cyclic activity generated within the brain itself 2 A rhythm of activity and inactivity that lasts about a day is called a a Euclidean rhythm b Diadromous rhythm c Biorhythm d Circadian rhythm 3 When we re tired we would likely have in the brain a High levels of adenosine b High levels of orexinhypocretin c Low levels of adenosine d Both A and B are correct e Both B and C are correct Daniel is currently in Stage 1 sleep If we examine his brain s electrical activity we would most likely observe a Alpha waves b Beta waves c Delta waves d Theta waves e Sleep spindles and kcomplexes Which best describes stage slowwave sleep a Lack of genital activity and moderate muscle tone b Slow or absent eye movements c Delta waves in electroencephalogram EEG d Both A and B are correct e A B and C are correct According to dreams reflect sleeping mind quotmaking sense of random brain activity Memory integration hypothesis b Evolvedthreat rehearsal hypothesis c Psychodynamic theory d Activationsynthesis hypothesis OJ Friday September 18 2015 42 What is Sleep Do Don t Exercise but not too close to bed time Use alcohol close bed time If you nap nap early Overdo caffeine during the day Can t sleep Relax Do other things in bed Keep a regular schedule Useoveruse sleep medication See a doctor 44 How Do Drugs Affect Consciousness Psychoactive drugs are mindaltering substances that people typically take for recreational purposes 0 Change neurochemical processes by imitating or changing the activity of a particular neurotransmitter eg dopamine o Dopamine is one of about 60 neurotransmitters o Dopamine is the main neurotransmitter affected by psychoactive drugs Recreational use can sometimes lead to addiction drug use despite negative consequences 1 Tolerance A person needs to consume more of a drug to achieve the same effect a One beer might be enough vs 12 beers to have to same effect b A line of cocaine vs 3 lines for the same effect 2 Withdrawal An unpleasant physiological or psychological state when the drug is not present or cannot be used a Physiological withdrawal symptoms i Change In body temperature ii Nausea iii Profuse sweating iv Bad heading v Chills vi Mild seizures vii Usually only treatment is to take the drug again viii Might use drug to avoid the withdrawal symptoms b Psychological withdrawal symptoms i Craving An intense desire for the drug ii No change in physiological iii The person may simply want it or need it iv Individual will disregard problems with law family etc Stimulants are a class of drugs that increases behavioral and mental activity 1 Increase in motion 2 Increase of mental activity a May induce focus o Stimulate activity of central nervous system eg dopamine neurotransmission and sympathetic nervous system 0 Recreational eg cocaine and methamphetamine and therapeutic eg amphetamine Adderall and modafinil use Psychoactive Drugs expe ence codeine Type Psychological Examples Neurotransmitter Effects Systems Stimulants Increased behavioral Amphetamines Dopamine and mental activity methamphetamine norepinephrine cocaine nicotine acetylcholine caffiene nicotine Depressants Decreased behavioral Antianxiety drugs GABA and mental activity barbiturates benzodiazepines alcohol OpiatesNarcotics Reduced pain Heroin morphine Endorphins HallucinogensPsychedelics Altered thoughts or perceptions LSD PCP peyote psilocybin mushrooms Serotonin LSD peyote psilocybin glutamate PCP Combination Mixed effects Marijuana MDMA Cannabinoid marijuana serotonin dopamine norepinephrine MDMA How and why do people become addicted o Dopamine activity in the limbic system nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area mesolimbic dopamine pathway 0 Set of dopamine neurons to from pathway to accumbens o Stimulants increase the dopamine signals 0 The pathway helps to regulate when is it time to eat 0 Inherited risk factors eg D2 dopamine signaling in the Reward Deficiency Syndrome iClicker Questions 1 What is not an adaptive functions of sleep a Shutting off the brain b Repairing damage c Hiding during times of damage d Both A and B are not adaptive functions of sleep e A B and C are not adaptive functions of sleep 2 Which is the best example of tolerance to alcohol a When Meirong drinks alcohol her balance and coordination are impaired and she cannot safely drive her car b After several years of alcohol use Meirong experiences a strong psychological desire or craving for alcohol she is not able to drink c After several years of alcohol use Huian experiences a bed headache and nauseawhen she is not able to drink alcohol d When Meii started college she needed one beer to relax after several years of alcohol use finds she needs twelve beers to relax 3 Which best describes the effects of opiates on brain and behavior a Altering perceptions and thoughts b Increase physical and mental processes c Lessen the experience of pain d Decrease the symptoms of schizophrenia 4 Stimulant addiction is related to activity of neurons from the to the a Occipital cortex frontal cortex Hypothalamus pituitary gland Frontal cortex occipital cortex Ventral tegmental area nucleus accumbens Ventral tegmental pituitary gland DP9939 Monday September 14 2015 iClicker Questions 41 What is Consciousness Diagnosis ArousalWakefulness Awareness Communication Consciousness Opens eyes Scanning a visual field Responding to stimuli Sleepwake pattern Brain cycles between slowwave and REM sleep Paralyzedmove through bed over time Consistent Consistently aware of surroundings Consistent Response to speech Minimally Conscious State Opens eyes Eyes will open and close Sleepwake pattern Brain cycles between slowwave and REM sleep Inconsistent Sometimes there is a response Inconsistent Has some type of communication Persistent Vegetative State Opens eyes Sleepwake pattern No evidence There are examples to the rule that debunk None No communication Coma Does not open eyes No response to stimuli No sleepwake pattern No pattern is noticed No evidence None Sleep is more than not being awake 0 Important for overall health and wellbeing o It is a different type of consciousness 0 Can appreciate its importance in sleep disorders 0 Insomnia Narcolepsy Parsomnia somnambulism Sleep apnea breathing interruptions during sleep Restless leg syndrome tingling or prickly sensation in the legs 0000 42 What is Sleep 1 Insomnia A person s overall mental health and the ability to function are compromised by their inability to sleep 0 Idiopathic Insomnia of an unknown origin The most common form I Is not easily identifiable eg due to a party or lack of sleep 0 Transient Insomnia due to stimulus I Neighbors trounce around and party due so individual cannot get sleep I Same neighbors do not party and the individual now gets a good rest 0 Iatrogenicpoor sleep hygiene Medication I Using items such as phones that emit a bright light I Light resets the body s biological clock I Insomnia becomes worse due to the poor sleep hygiene o Psychological disorders I DepressionAnxiety play a role I Must focus on the disorder to identify the causes 0 Pseudoinsomnia I Thoughtsdreams of having insomnia but actually getting good sleep 43 What is Altered Consciousness Hypnosis is induced through Suggestion Hypnosis A social interaction where a person responds to suggestions experiencing changes in memory perception andor voluntary action 2 It is agreed that hypnosis affects some people but do not agree on whether or not it actually induces an altered state of cognition Theories of Hypnosis 1 Sociocognitive Theory People hypnotized are expected to act hypnotized a Expectations could be faulty for some 2 Neodissociation Theory Acknowledges the social context a Views hypnosis as an altered state b Hypnosis is thought of to be a trancelike state where conscious thought is dissociated from the other aspects of consciousness Meditation can Produce Relaxation 3 Meditation A mental procedure that focuses attention on an external object or on sense of awareness o Concentrative Meditation Focusing the attention on a single thing I Breathing pattern I Mental image I Specific phrase o Mindfulness Meditation Letting the thoughts you have flow freely I Contents of your inner voice I Hearing the thoughts but not overtly paying attention to them People Can Lose Themselves in Activities 1 Runner s High After feeling pain and fatigue a euphoric feeling and release of energy is felt a Due to physiological processes like endorphin releases 2 Religious Ecstasy Feeling a euphoria 3 4 a Usually felt when religious ceremonies decrease awareness of the outside world Flow Performing a task with a desire a Can be very absorbing and satisfying b Experiencing flow can result in a loss of time Escapism A way out of a stressful situation via activities a Escaping self vs Engaging with life b Activities such as gambling video games etc 52 What is Sleep When we sleep is regulated by the body s circadian rhythms 4 5 6 The biological clock that humans have Is 2424 and 12 hours Kept by neurons locates in the superchiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus 0 Proteins build and destroy on the circadian cycle 0 Internal behavioral clock 0 Sends signals to other brain cells to relay the message to wake upsleep o Zeitgebers reset the biologoical clock I Presence or absence of light determines when the clock resets If a person in a coma shows some evidence of being aware of his surroundings the condition is known as a Consciousness b Permanent conscious state c Minimally conscious state d Brain death On Monday night Cody couldn t sleep He was worried about Tuesday s calculus test On Tuesday night he got his usual night s sleep Cody experienced on Monday night a Idiopathic insomnia b Iatrogenic insomnia c Transient insomnia d Narcolepsy e Somnambulism Occasionally Meifen will fall asleep while working with a customer She is experiencing which sleep disorder a Narcolepsy b Transient insomnia c Sleep apnea d Iatrogenic insomnia


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