Week 3: Lecture/Reading Notes 5 & 6
Week 3: Lecture/Reading Notes 5 & 6 Bio Sci 152
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Bio Sci 152
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by KelseyH on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio Sci 152 at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee taught by Dr. Daad Saffarini, Dr. Erica Young, Dr. Jane Witten in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Biological Sciences II in Biological Sciences at University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 91415 Reading Covered in These Notes 2 1 edition pages 390393 1 edition pages 371 383 Last Lecture Notes 4 Outline The Prokaryotes Metabolic Diversity Ecology Lecture Notes 5 Outline The Prokaryotes Symbiosis and Disease The Prokaryotes Symbiosis and Disease 1 Ecological Communities a Prokaryotes Form Communities b Microbiomes c Bacterial Pathogens 2 Checkpoint Concept 193 Ecological Communities Prokaryotes Form Communities 0 Prokaryotic cells live in communities forming microbial communities 0 Communities can be harm humans 0 Communities can be beneficial to humans I Example Our food is digested by beneficial microbial colonies I These communities tend to form biofilms a thin mucus film that is made by bacterial colonies and other microorganisms o Biofilms connect with a surface of an object the cells adhere to the surface amp excrete a gel polysaccharide matrix that captures other cells 0 Biofilm infection is created it is extremely hard to kill even with antibiotics I Example Plaque that develops on teeth is a form of biofilm Human immune system is weak against pathogenic bacteria 0 Biofilms are impermeable to antibiotics 1Page Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 91415 See fig 1919 Forming a Biofilm 2nd edition page 391 1St edition page 379 Microbiomes Health of humans depends on microbiomes bacteria and archaea colonies that reside in our bodies 0 Our body are carpeted with bacteria 0 More than 10000 species living inside and outside of our bodies 0 Disruptions to microbiomes in our bodies can cause health problems 0 The communities are affected by factors in our lives I Food medicines environmental toxinsetc 0 Human intestine carries important metabolic products that are produced by the microbiomes 0 Important products I Vitamins B12 39 W o Biofilm lines our intestines function as specific tissues that play a role in maintaining human health 0 Animals have specialized bacteria and archaea in their digestive tracts 0 Example Cattle rely on colonies that line intestines to break down M matter such as cellulose Bacterial Pathogens 0 German physician Robert Koch made four rules Koch s postulates states certain microorganisms create corresponding diseases 1 Individuals with disease contain the microorganisms 2 Microorganisms taken from host can grow in cultures 2Page Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 91415 3 Culture inserted in new host develops disease 4 Infected host has same microorganism culture as found in step two See fig 1921 Satisfying Koch s Postulates 2nd edition page 393 1 edition page 382 Koch s postulates proved stomach ulcers were result of a bacterium Helicobacter pylori o Organism only thrives as pathogen if 0 Lands on surface of a possible host 0 Invades body of the host 0 Dodges host defenses o Replicates in host 0 Contaminates new host If host is infected by pathogen results rely on o Invasiveness of a pathogen pathogen ability to replicate in host 0 Toxigenicity of a pathogen ability to create toxic chemical substances in host 0 Examples of pathogenic a ects I Corynebacterium diphtheriae diphtheria pathogen 0 Low invasiveness can only reproduce in the throat 0 High toxigenicity can in uence the whole body I Bacillus anthracis anthrax pathogen Two types of bacterial toxins 1 Endotoxins lipopolysaccharides released when Gramnegative bacteria lyse burst o Rarely fatal 0 Cause fever vomiting and diarrhea 0 Example Salmonella 2 Exotoxins proteins released by replicating bacteria 0 Extremely toxic 0 Frequently fatal 0 Example Yersinia pestis bubonic plague 3Page Biological Sciences 11 BIO SCI 152 91415 Checkpoint Concept 193 o How do biofilms form and why are they of special interest to researchers 0 Biofilms are of special interest because the bacteria that create these biofilms can be harmful to human health and are extremely hard to control or get rid of once they are formed Biofilms complicate modern medicine because they are resistant to antibiotics Researchers hope to control these bacteria by blocking the signal bacteria send to form the biofilm matrix in the first place which would stop the initial formation of the biofilm all together 0 What are three ways that modern lifestyles may be disrupting human microbiomes in ways that affect our health 0 Three ways our modern lifestyles are affecting out microbiomes are through the kind of foods we choose to eat the medications we take and the environmental toxins we are exposed to day to day Disruption of the microbiomes in our bodies can lead to weakened immune systems which gives way to more cases of autoimmune diseases 0 How is nitrogen metabolism in the prokaryotes vital to other organisms Given the roles of bacteria in the nitrogen cycle how would you answer people who consider all bacteria to be quotgermsquot and dangerous 0 Prokaryotes are able to convert nitrogen into ammonia or nitrogen into different forms which can be used by plants and other organisms Some bacteria is harmful but the bacteria that convert nitrogen to be used through the nitrogen cycle are beneficial to all organisms as they provide plants with useable forms of nitrogen Then those plants can be used as food for humans and other animals those animals can then be food for humans and other animals the waste from those organisms then cycles back to the decomposers to fix the ammonia into nitrogen which can once again be used by the plants and the cycle starts again and infinitely repeats Each day of our lives we are provided nourishment by these socalled quotgermsquot 4Page