Man's Food Notes - module 3 lesson 11
Man's Food Notes - module 3 lesson 11 FOS 2001
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Haley Kairab on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to FOS 2001 at University of Florida taught by Dr. Agata Kowalewska in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Man's Food in Nutrition and Food Sciences at University of Florida.
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Date Created: 03/15/16
FOS2001 Man39s Food NOTES Module 3 Lesian 11 Minerals What are Minerals KEY TERMS Bioavailability The degree to which a nutrient from foods is available for absorption by the body Bone mineral density BMD The amount of minerals in particular calcium per volume in an individual s bones The more dense the bones the stronger they are Diastolic pressure The force of your blood against the artery walls when the heart is at rest between beats Electrolytes Ions such as potassium sodium or chloride that are required to help cells regulate the electric charge and flow of water molecules across cell membranes Hypertension high blood pressure Hyponatremia A condition of too little sodium in the blood Inorganic Compounds that do not contain carbon and are not formed by living things Osteopenia low bone mass Osteoporosis A condition whereby the bones are porous and less dense increasing the risk of fractures Peak bone mass The genetically determined maximum amount of bone mass an individual can build up Salt A mineral complex made up of equivalent ions like sodium and chloride Systolic pressure The force of your blood against the artery walls when your heart beats Minerals In The Body Amount of minerals in the body vary from person to person Function of Minerals Minerals play important role in the structural growth of the body 0 Aid in healthy developmentmaintenance of bones teeth and tissue Provide calcium needed to regulate muscle contractionsnerve impulses Primarily grow from the Earth 0 Found in plant and animal foods Best sources vegetables legumes milk meat Absorption of minerals depends on their bioavailability Importance of Sodium Chief role is regulation of fluid balance Promotes water retention in the body and is a component of the extracellular fluidextracellular water of the body It is involved in osmotic pressure balance acidbase balance and membrane pumping o Membrane pumping and osmotic pressure work together to transport substances across cell membranes Recommended sodium intake for adults up to 51 yo 1500 milligrams daily As a person39s sodium increases blood pressure does too Sodium Deficiency Sodium deficiencydepletion caused by vomiting overexertion sweating excessive urination Drink water and maintain water balance to treat Minerals Continued Calcium In The Diet One of the most abundant minerals in nature and the most abundant in the body 0 99 of calcium in the body goes toward creating the structural components of bones and teeth Calcium utilization requires vitamin D Good sources of calcium milk yogurt cheese broccoli Adults need 10001200 milligrams of calcium daily Calcium deficiency can lead to tetany poor development or osteoporosis The SecondMost Abundant Mineral Phosphorus Majority of phosphorus is in the bones 0 Component of cells 0 Needed during metabolism 0 Acts as a buffer to help return blood pH to normal if too acidic Adults need 700 milligrams daily 0 Average American has 1000 milligrams daily Lack of phosphorus can lead to weakened bone structure similar to calcium deficiency Magnesium Chloride and Sulfur Magnesium o Needed for metabolism and maintain healthy muscles nerves bones and heart 0 About half of magnesium in the body is in bones the rest are in cells 0 Benefits of magnesium are helping to lower high blood pressure and reducing risk of diabetes Chloride 0 Part of hydrochloric acid a strong acid in stomach that enhances protein digestion and kills harmful bacteria 0 Adults should have 1300 milligrams a day 0 Sodium chloride is main source of chloride in diet Sulfur 0 Found in the body as part of compounds thiamin biotin and pantothenic acid 0 Helps some amino acids perform effectively as enzymes and hormones 0 Food manufacturers often used sulfurbased substances sulfites as a preservative o No known toxicity or deficiency symptoms The Most Abundant Trace Mineral lron Most abundant mineral on the Earth and the most abundant trace mineral in the body Needed to transport oxygen for tissues muscles and brain functioning Two forms heme animal sources and nonheme plant sources 818 milligrams are needed daily depending on agegender higher needs for vegetarians Too much supplemental irons can cause intestinal problems lodine and the Thyroid Essential mineral for the thyroid gland Problem not found everywhere in the environment Adults need 150 micrograms daily Deficiency can result in mental impairment retardation or in a goiter enlarged thyroid gland Fluoride Bestknown function is keeping teeth healthy Absorbed by the body via topical treatments Too much fluoride can cause fluorosis condition that causes teeth to become pitted and develop white patches Copper Zinc and Selenium Copper 0 Important for iron absorption and transfer as well as the synthesis of hemoglobin and red blood cells 0 Plays important role in blood clotting and maintaining healthy immune system 0 Adults need 900 micrograms daily Zinc o Needed for DNA synthesis growth and development from infancy through adolescence to strengthen immune system helps strengthen immune system helps wounds heal 0 Adult males need 11 milligrams daily adult females need 8 milligrams daily 0 Too much can cause intestinal problems suppress the immune system and lower HDL cholesterol 0 Deficiency can cause hair loss loss of appetite impaired taste of foods diarrhea delayed sexual maturation impotence and skin rashes Selenium o Needed to regulate thyroid hormones and functions as an antioxidant 0 Adults need 55 micrograms daily Chromium Manganese Molybdenum Chromium 0 Main function is to increase effectiveness of insulin in cells 0 Adults need 2035 micrograms daily Manganese o Needed for metabolism and bone formation 0 Adult women need 23 milligrams adult men need 18 milligrams Molybdenum 0 Part of several enzymes involved in the breakdown of certain amino acids and other compounds 0 Adults need 45 micrograms daily
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