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American History-Week 2

by: Alyson Hankins

American History-Week 2 History 1200

Alyson Hankins
Survey of American History Since 1865

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Tuesday, September 1, 2015 American History
Survey of American History Since 1865
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyson Hankins on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1200 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Tuesday September 1 2015 American History Section 2 The Industrial Economy Country started moving away from Lincoln s small farm idea and onto a mature industrial society Americans in the late 19th century marveled at the triumph of the new economy By 1913 the US produced 13 of the world s industrial output More than the total of Great Britain France and Germany combined Half of industrial workers worked in plants with more than 250 employees US was still primarily an agricultural nation By 1880 the Census Bureau found a majority of the workforce engaged in non farming jobs By 1890 23 of Americans worked for wages rather than owning a farm business or craft shop Between 1870 and 1920 almost 11 million Americans moved from farm to city 25 million immigrants arrived from overseas The heartland of the second industrial revolution was the region around the Great Lakes Factories producing iron and steel machinery chemicals and packaged foods Railroads and the National Market The railroad made possible what is sometimes called the second industrial revolution The number of miles of railroad track tripled between 1860 and 1880 and tripled again by 1920 One company can travel on other companies tracks By 1890s 5 transcontinental lines transported products of western mines farms and ranches to eastern markets and carried manufactured goods to the West Tuesday September 1 2015 In 1883 major companies divided the nation into the four time zones Mass productiondistributionmarketing was essential of a modern industrial economy Chain products began Quaker OatsIvory Soap amp National company chains grew Spirit of Innovation A series of technological innovations spurred rapid communication and economic growth Atlantic cable in 1866 made it possible to send electronic telegraph messages instantaneously between US and Europe During 1870s and 1880s the telephone typewriter and handheld camera came into use Thomas Edison Transformed private life public entertainment and economic activity Phonograph lightbulb motion picture and a system for generatingdistributing electric power Nikola Tesla Born in Croatia and moved to US at age 28 Developed an electric motor using the system of alternating current Competition and Consolidation Economic growth was dramatic but highly volatile The world economy suffered prolonged downturns in the 1870s and 1890s Businesses formed pools Divided up markets between supposedly competitive firms and fixed prices Established trusts Legal devices whereby the affairs of several rival companies were managed by a single director Many companies fell by the wayside or were gobbled up by others Tuesday September 1 2015 US Steel Standard Oil and International Harvester dominated major parts of the economy The Rise of Andrew Carnegie Under the aggressive leadership of Thomas A Scott the Pennsylvania Railroad for a time the nation s largest corporation forged an economic empire that stretched across the continent and included coal mines and oceangoing steamships The railroad pioneered modern techniques of business organization Andrew Carnegie emigrant from Scotland at age 13 Worked in Pennsylvania textile company Set out to establish vertically integrate steel companies A business that controlled every phase from raw materials to transportation manufacturing and distribution He dominated the steel industry by the 1890s Says to give back wealth to philanthropies in the Gospel Make money but give it to others to help those in poverty Build institutions like librariesschools amp not just give it away so they work hard to be wealthy The Triumph of John D Rockefeller Began his working career as a clerk for a Cleveland merchant Rose to dominate the oil industry Began horizontal expansion Buying out competing oil refineries becomes a monopoly Soon established a vertically integrated monopoly which controlled the drilling refining storage and distribution By the 1880s his Standard Oil Company controlled 90 of the nations oil industry Captains of industry Tuesday September 1 2015 Energy and vision pushed the economy forward Robber barons Wielded power without any accountability in an unregulated marketplace Workers Freedom in an Industrial Age The country s economic growth distributed its benefits very unevenly For a minority of workers the rapidly expanding industrial system created new forms of freedom In some industries skilled workers commanded high wages and exercised considerable control over the production process Economic independence rested on technical skills rather than ownership of shopstools The miner s freedom Consisted of elaborate work rules that left skilled underground workers free of managerial supervision on the job These workers usually knew more about the details of production than the employers did For most workers economic insecurity remained a basic fact of life Many industrial workers labored 60 hours a week with no pensions workers comp or protection against unemployment Americans worked in more dangerous working conditions compared to places in Europe Americans did get higher pay than those in Europe though Between 1880 and 1900 35000 workers died each year on average in factory mining accidents Highest rate in the industrial world Sunshine amp Shadow Increasing Wealth and Poverty Class division became more and more visible Mansions amp exclusive neighborhoodsresorts were coming about Tuesday September 1 2015 Middle class professionals office workers and small businessmen became more known Rich spent money just to show their wealth Much of the working class lived in desperate conditions Dark airless overcrowded tenement houses Transformation of the West Capitalism penetrate the transMississippi West the most rapidlydramatically Many moved westward to economic opportunities Gold Rush California was actually the site of forced Indian labor Landlords railroads and mining companies in the West also utilized Mexicans amp indentured labor Chinese worked on longterm contracts until the end of the Civil War Diverse Region West of the Mississippi River lay a variety of regions marked by beauty Great Plains Rocky Mountains Sierra Nevada desert amp the Californian valleys The incorporation of the West required the active intervention of the federal government In the 20th century the federal government started financing irrigation systems and dams to open large areas to commercial farming The West would become known as a place of rugged individualism and sturdy independence Without active government assistance the region could never have been settled and developed Farming on the Middle Border Many people moved to the West through the Homestead Act and by purchasing land from speculators and railroad companies that had been granted immense tracts of public land by the federal government Tuesday September 1 2015 Agricultural empire arose producing wheat and corn for national and international markets Minnesota the Dakotas Nebraska and Kansas Many difficulties can by farming on the Great Plains Poisonous rattlesnakes blizzards and droughts Women did more work by hand because machinery was too expensive Bonanza Farm No single family could do all the work required on irrigated farms Railroads brought factorymade goods to rural people replacing items previously produced in farmers homes Farm families become more dependent on loans to purchase land machinery and industrial products amp more vulnerable to the ups and downs of prices for agricultural goods in the world market The future of western farming depended on the giant agricultural enterprises relying heavily on irrigation chemicals and machinery Cowboy and the Corporate West Golden age of the cattle kingdom White Mexican and black men who conducted the cattle drives became symbols of a life of freedom on the open range Inspired the cowboy as we see it in movies and costumes today Nothing romantic about the life of a cowboy Low paid workers Days of longdistance cattle drives Terrible winters that destroyed millions of cattle By 1890 s a higher percentage of the Western population lived in cities The economic focus remained in San Francisco Major manufacturing and trade center In 1892 oil was discovered in Los Angeles Tuesday September 1 2015 The lumber industry dominated in 1860 and acquired large tracts of forest and employed armies of loggers Gold and silver rushes took place in the Dakotas Idaho and Alaska at the end of the century Similar process happened in New Mexico Started as a traditional life based on sheep farming on land owned by common Mexican villagers Railroads reached the area in the 1870 s bringing the mining and commercial ranchersfarmers with them By 1880 34 of New Mexico s sheep belonged to just 20 families because more and more Hispanic residents went to work in the mines and railroads Conflict of the Mormon Frontier Mormons had moved to the Great Salt Lake Valley in the 1840s hoping to practice their religion free of the persecution they suffered from in the East Great empire they called Deseret Because of the unpopularity of polygamy and the close connection of church and state in Mormon theology conflict between the federal government and non Mormons arose Brigham Young was replaced by a nonMormon governor because there were rumors that Utah was being obstructed When Young refused to comply troops remained in Salt Lake Valley until the beginning of the Civil War Tension arose and a group of Mormons attacked a wagon train of nonMormon settlers Mountain Meadows Massacre Death of all the adults and older children on the wagon train 100 After the Civil War Mormon families spread across the Southwest In 1880 Utah banned polygamy It is still around to this day among some fundamentalist Mormons living in isolated areas Tuesday September 1 2015 Subjugation of the Plains Indians Incorporation of the West into the national economy spelled doom for the Plains Indians and their world In 1869 Grant announced a new peace policy Tried to stop people from destroying the foundations of the Indian economy Villages horses and especially buffalo Let me be a Free Man The army relentlessly attacked one tribe after another Nez Perce tribe sought to escape to Canada after fights with settlers who had encroached on tribal lands in Oregon and Idaho Indians occasionally managed to inflict costly delay and even defeat army units Greats Indian victory took place in June 1876 at Little Bighorn General Custer and entire 250 men perished Sioux and Cheyenne warriors led by Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse were defending tribal land of the Black Hills of the Dakota Territory These events only temporarily delayed the onward march of white soldiers settlers and prospectors Nebraska Colorado the Dakotas Montana Washington Idaho amp Wyoming all entered the Union Railroads crossed the Great Plains Plains tribes were concentrated on reservations where they lived in poverty and were preyed upon by traders and government agents Remaking Indian Life The Indian idea of freedom was centered on preserving their cultural and political autonomy and control of ancestral lands which conflicted with the interests and values of most white Americans Most officials wanted them to surrender their land exchange their religion nomadic way and gender relations for Christian worship private ownership and small farming on reservations the way Americans did things during this time Tuesday September 1 2015 Congress eliminated the treaty system between the US and the Indians The Dawes Act The act broke up the land nearly all tribes into small parcels to be distributed to Indian families with the remainder auctioned off to white purchasers Indians who accepted farms and adopted the habits of civilized life would become fullfledged American citizens This policy proved to be a disaster for Indians leading to loss of tribal land and the erosion of Indian cultural traditions Whites benefited enormously by this policy Indians lost 86 million of 138 million acres of land in their possession in 1887 Indian Citizenship Many laws and treaties in the 19th century offered Indians the right to become an American citizen if they left the tribal setting and assimilated into American society Tribal identity was one thing almost every Indian wished to maintain Very few took advantage of these offers Most didn t become American citizens Western courts ruled the citizen rights in the 14th and 15th Amendments didn39t apply to them The court questioned whether any Indian had achieved the degree of civilization required of American citizens By 1900 roughly 53000 Indians had become American citizens through the Dawes Act 100000 more the following year The remainder would have to wait until 1919 when Congress made all Indian Americans citizens The Ghost Dance and Wounded Knee The leaders foretold a day when whites disappear the buffalo would return and Indians could once again practice their ancestral customs On December 29 1890 soldiers opened fire on Ghost Dancers encamped near Wounded Knee Creek in South Dakota Tuesday September 1 2015 Killed between 150 and 200 Indians Mostly women and children Democrats accused Republicans of mismanaging Indian affairs and Republicans responded by saying that the Indians were barbarians who posed danger to white settles The Wounded Knee massacre was widely applauded in the press Commander and others were later awarded with the Medal of Honor for exceptional heroism in battle By 1900 the Indian population had fallen to 250000 the lowest in American history Settler Societies and Global Wests The conquest of the American West was part of a global process whereby settlers moved body into the interior of regions bringing their familiar crops and livestock and establishing mining and other industries Settler societies Argentina Australia Canada New Zealand amp US Immigrants from overseas quickly outnumbered and displaced the original inhabitants In 1885 Canada marked the completion of its first transcontinental railroad Politics in a Gilded Age 18701890 was known as the Gilded Age Referring to the remarkable expansion of the economy but also to the corruption caused by corporate dominance of politics and to the oppressive treatment of those left behind in the scramble for wealth The Corruption of Politics Americans saw their nation as an island of political democracy in a world still dominated by undemocratic governments The Politics of Dead Center Organizations of Union veterans formed a bulwark of Republican support 10 11 Tuesday September 1 2015 Every Republican candidate for president from 18681900 had fought for the Union Army By 1893 a lavish system of pensions for Union soldiers and their widowschildren consumed more than 40 of the federal budget Democrats dominated the South and did well among Catholic voters amp lrish Americans In 3 out of 5 elections there was less than 1 of the popular vote separating the major candidates Only for brief periods did the same party control the White House amp both houses of Congress Government and the Economy The nation s political structure proved ill equipped to deal with the problems created by the economy s rapid growth The federal government remained remarkably small by modern standards The federal government numbered 100000 in 1880 Today it exceeds 25 million Republicans strongly supported a high tariff to protect American industry Throughout the 1870s they pursued a fiscal policy based on reducing federal spending repaying much of the national debt and withdrawing greenbacks Green backs paper money issued by the Union during the Civil war Democrats opposed a high tariff but the party s national leadership remained closely linked to NY bankers and financiers and resisted demands from debtridden agricultural areas for an increase in the money supply In 1879 for the first time since the war the US returned to the gold standard Paper currency became exchangeable for gold at a fixed rate Republican economic policies strongly favored the interests of eastern industrialists and bankers These policies worked to the disadvantage of southern and western farmers who had to pay a premium for manufactured goods while the prices they received for their produce steadily declined Tuesday September 1 2015 Reform Legislation Civil Service Act of 1883 Inspired partly by President Garfield s assassination Created a merit system for federal employees with appointment via competitive examinations rather than political influence The act marked the first step in establishing a professional civil service and removing officeholding from the hands of political machines Interstate Commerce Commission ICC Ensures that the rates railroads charged farmers and merchants to transport their goods were reasonable and did not offer more favorable treatment to some shippers over others First federal agency intended to regulate economic activity Lacked the power to establish rates on its own so it had little impact on railroad practices Sherman Antitrust Act Banned all significant threat to corporate efforts to dominate sectors of the economy Theses laws helped to establish the precedent that the national government could regulate the economy to promote the public good Political Conflict in the States Those who suffered from economic changes called on the activist state created by the war to redress their own grievances GreenbackLabor Party Proposed that the federal government stop taking greenback money out of circulation Make more funds available for investment and give the government not private bankers control of the money supplied Condemned the use of militias and private police against strikes 12 Tuesday September 1 2015 Farmers and local merchants complained of excessively high freight rates discrimination in favor of large producersshippers and high fees charged by railroadcontrolled grain warehouses Grange Moved to establish cooperatives for storing and marketing farm output in the hope of forcing the carriers to take our produce at a fair price Founded in 1867 it claimed more than 700000 members by the mid 1870s The members called on state governments to establish fair freight rates and warehouse charges Succeeded in having commissions established to investigate and sometimes regulate railroad practices Labor Movement Demanded laws establishing 8 hours as a legal day s work The Social Problem Talk of better class respectable class and dangerous class had started to dominate public discussion Hearings produced powerful evidence of distrust between employees and employers A factory interview said the employees complained about overwork poor housing and tyrannical employers Freedom Inequality and Democracy Advanced economics taught that wages were determined by the iron law of supply and demand amp that wealth rightly flowed not to those who worked the hardest but to men with business skill and access to money Liberal reformers This group of editors and professionals broke with the Republican Party and helped bring about a change in northern opinion regarding Reconstruction Gilded Age reformers feared that with lowerclass groups seeking to use government to advance their own interests that democracy was becoming a threat to individual liberty and the rights of property 13 Tuesday September 1 2015 Social Darwinism in America The idea of the natural superiority of some groups to others reemerged to explain the success and failure of individuals and social classes Charles Darwin published On the Origin of Species One of the most influential works of science ever to appear The natural process in home society as in nature and government must not interfere Social Darwinists believed restricting operations by legislation would reduce society to a more primitive level Even a depression didn39t shake the view that the poor were essentially responsible for their own fate Charities tried distinguishing between the deserving and undeserving poor William Sumner The era s most influential Social Darwinist Freedom meant the security given to each man exclusively he chooses Published What Social Classes Owe to Each Other His answer was nothing Liberty of Contract As long as labor relations were governed by contracts freely neither the government nor unions had a right to interfere with working conditions and Americans had no grounds to complain about a loss of freedom The Courts and Freedom 14 Liberty of contract became the 14th Amendment s true meaning Federal government could overturn state laws that violated citizens rights Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 Most cases brought against railroads made their way to the Supreme Courts and the company emerged victorious Tuesday September 1 2015 Courts usually sided with business enterprises that complained of a loss of economic freedom Women still lacked political rights but possessed the same economic liberty as men The Sherman Act intended to prevent mergers that stifled competition and was used by mostly judges to issue injunctions prohibiting strikes on the grounds that they illegally interfered with the freedom of trade Yellowdog contracts Made nonmembership in a union a condition of unemployment The Overwhelming Labor Question The Great Railroad Strike Workers protesting a pay cut paralyzed rail traffic in much of the country Militia tried to force them back to work Troops fired on strikers killing 20 people Workers responded by burning the city s railroad yards destroying millions of dollars in property Federal government constructed armories in major cities to ensure that troops would be on hand if more difficulties arose The Knights of Labor and the Conditions Essential to Liberty Knights of Labor First group to try to organize unskilled workers as well as skilled women and blacks Involved millions of strikes boycotts political action and educationalsocial activities Labor reformers started the 8 hour day currency reform anarchism socialism and creation of cooperative commonwealth All ideas arose from conviction that the social conditions needed drastic change Labor raised the question of where meaningful freedom could exist in a situation of extreme economic inequality 15 Tuesday September 1 2015 Middleclass Reformers Widespread fear that the country was in real danger of another kind of slavery that would result from the aggregation of capital in the hands of few individuals Progress and Poverty Commanded more public attention than any book on economics in American history Wants to government to take money from the wealthy poor pay less tax and rich pay more tax The Cooperative Commonwealth The first book to popularize socialist ideas for an American audience Bellamy s Utopia Hope of retaining the material abundance made possible by industrial capitalism while eliminating the inequality Protestants and Moral Reform Christian lobby Promoted political solutions to what it saw as the moral problems raised by labor conflict and the growth of cities and threats to religious faith by Darwin and other scientific advances Most spoke less about improving society than stamping out the sins of individuals A Social Gospel Most of the era s Protestant preachers attacked individual sins like drinking and Sabbathbreaking and saw nothing immoral of the pursuit of riches Originated as an effort to reform Protestant churches by expanding their appeal in poor urban neighborhoods and making them more attentive to the era s social ills Alleviate poverty combat child labor and encourage the construction of better workingclass housing Worked with the Knights of Labor Haymarket Affair Haymarket martyrs 16 Tuesday September 1 2015 4 hanged 1 committed suicide and the remaining 3 were imprisoned until 1893 7 out of 8 of the men were foreign and the other had served in the Confederate Army They were blamed for plotting the Haymarket bombing Labor and Politics 17


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