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American History- Week 3

by: Alyson Hankins

American History- Week 3 History 1200

Alyson Hankins
Survey of American History Since 1865

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Week 3 American History
Survey of American History Since 1865
Class Notes
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyson Hankins on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1200 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Week 3 American History Chapter 17 The Farmers Revolt The declining price of cotton threw millions of small farmers deep into debt and threatened them with with the loss of their land Farmers Alliance Largest citizens movement in the 19th century Farmers sought to remedy their condition The People s Party The era s greatest political insurgency Not just for farmers but for all producers Published numerous pamphlets on political and economic questions established more than 1000 local newspapers and sent traveling speakers throughout the rural America Promoted agricultural education and believed farmers should adopt modern scientific methods of cultivation Believed the federal government could move beyond partisan conflict to operate in a businesslike manner to promote public good The Populist Platform Written by Ignatius Donnelly a Minnesota editor and former Radical Republican congressman Put forth a list of proposals to restore democracy and economic opportunity Called for public ownership of the railroads to guarantee farmers inexpensive access to markets for their crops The Populist Coalition In some southern states they made remarkable efforts to unite black and white small farmers on a common political and economic program Week 3 Colored Farmers Alliance Tried to organize a strike on cotton pickers but it ended by being violently suppressed by authorities and landowners Engaged the energies of thousands of reform minded women from farm and labor backgrounds The party carried 5 western states with 22 electoral votes elected 3 governors and 15 members of Congress The Government and Labor Severe depression led to increased conflict between capital and labor Coxey s Army Band of several hundred unemployed men led by Ohio business man who marched to Washington demanding economic relief Populism and Labor Populists made efforts to appeal to industrial workers Populist vote increased in rural areas not in urban workers though Higher prices for farm goods would raise the cost of food and reduce the value of workers wage urban workers opinion Republicans gained 117 seats in the House of Representatives Bryan and Free Silver DemocratsPopulists joined to support William Jennings Bryan for the presidency Burn down your cities and leave our farms Free age of silver Unrestricted minting of silver money Bryan condemned the gold standard Strongly influenced by the Social Gospel movement and tried to apply the teachings of Jesus to uplifting the little people of America The Campaign of 1896 Republicans insisted that gold was the honest currency Week 3 Abandoning gold standard would destroy business confidence and prevent recovery from the depression Republicans nominated William McKinley First modern presidential campaign because of the amount of money spent by the Republicans The results revealed a nation as divided along regional lines as in 1860 Bryan South and West McKinley Northeast and Midwest Wizard of 02 was compared to the aftermath of the election of 1896 During McKinley s presidency Republicans placed their stamp on economic policy by passing the Dingley Tariff 1897 Raising rates to the highest level in history Gold Standard Act of 1900 The Redeemers in Power Redeemers The coalition of merchants planters and business entrepreneurs who dominated the region s politics after 1877 Moved to undo as much Reconstruction as possible State budgets were slashed taxes on property were reduced and public facilities hospitalsasylums were closed Public schools suffered greatly especially the black schools New laws authorized the arrest of anyone without employment and increased the penalties for petty crimes Conditions in labor camps were often barbaric with disease rife and death rates high The Failure of the New Southern Dream Henry Grady promoted the promise of a New South An era of prosperity based on industrial expansion and agricultural diversification Week 3 Southern cities were mainly export centers for cotton tobacco and rice Except Birmingham Alabama who was the center for the manufacturing of iron and steel Black Life in the South Upper south economic development offered some opportunities in mines iron furnaces and tobacco factories for blacks In the rice kingdom planters were unable to acquire the capital necessary to repair irrigation systems and machinery destroyed by the war Schools colleges churches businesses and women s clubs supported the growth of a black middle class Ex teachers physicians and businessmen Black men were excluded from supervisory positions in factories and workshops and whitecollar jobs More black women worked for wages than whites Mainly as domestic servants though The Kansas Exodus New South was a miserable landscape dotted only by a few rich enclaves that cast little or not light upon the poverty surrounding them Some sought to emigrate out of the South and moved to Kansas 40000 to 60000 African Americans Most blacks ended up as unskilled laborers in towns and cities because they lacked capital to take up farming Few chose to return to the South We d rather suffer and be free Most northern employers refused to offer jobs to blacks preferring white migrants from rural areas and immigrants of Europe The Decline of Black Politics Not until 1990 s would the number of black legislators in the South approach what they were during Reconstruction Week 3 National Association of Colored Women Founded in 1896 Brought together local and regional women s clubs to press for both women s rights and racial uplift Preached the necessity of respectable behavior as a part and parcel of the struggle for equality rights Readjuster movement Black Republicans and antiRedeemer Democrats Their plan to scale back or readjust state debt The Elimination of Black Voting Poll tax A fee each citizen had to pay in order to retain the right to vote Literacy tests As late as 1940 only 3 of adult black southerns were registered to vote The Law of Segregation Laws and local customs requiring the separation of the race had numerous precedents Southern schools had been segregated Some railroads theaters and hotels admitted blacks while others separated them by race or excluded blacks all together The Supreme Court invalidated the Civil Rights Act which outlawed racial discrimination by hotels theaters railroads and other public facilities Plessy v Ferguson The case arose in Louisiana where the railroad companies separated cars or sections for black passengers Separate but equal Segregation and White Domination Week 3 States reacted to Plessy v Ferguson by mandating racial segregation in every aspect of sorter life Schools hospitals waiting rooms toilets and cemeteries Not to keep races apart but to keep whites dominant Chinese were also segregated from whites amp blacks The Rise of Lynching Those blacks who challenged the system faced not only political and legal power but also the threat of violent reprisal Every year between 1883 and 1905 more than 50 black men were lynched in the South Murdered by a mob Some secretly at night others advertised in advance with large crowds Many countries witnessed outbreaks of violence against minority groups but the lynching phenomenon was unknown everywhere else Politics Religion and Memory The Civil War became remembered as a war of brother against brother in which blacks played no significant part Slavery became viewed as a minor issue not the war s fundamental cause Reconstruction as a regrettable period of Negro rule Religions changed their views and traditionscustoms The New Immigration and the New Nativism Over half immigrants were from southern and eastern Europe Italy Russian AustroHungary not Ireland England Germany or Scandinavia Beaten men from beaten race American cities were being overrun by foreigners who have no true appreciation of the meaning of liberty and therefore posed a danger to democratic government Immigration Restriction Laage Week 3 Called for reducing immigration by barring the illiterate from entering the US Suffrage throughout the country was increasingly becoming a privilege not a right Chinese Exclusion and Chinese Rights Both parties described Chinese as odious abominable dangerous and revolting Congress didn39t allow any more Chinese women or children to enter the US Eventually temporarily excluded immigrants from China from entering the country at all Nearly all Chinese lived in the West Coast being intensely discriminated against Tape v Hurley Ordered the city to admit Chinese students into public schools Didn39t repeal the law authorizing separate schools for the Chinese til 1947 Yick Wo v Hopkins The Court unanimously ordered San Francisco to grant licenses to Chinese operated laudries US v Wong Kim Ark The Court ruled that the 14th Amendment awarded citizenship to children of Chinese immigrants born on US soil Exclusion profoundly shaped the experience of the ChineseAmericans by making them seem like they were incapable of assimilation and justifying their oblation from mainstream society The Emergence of Booker T Washington Prominent black leaders took to emphasizing economic selfhelp and individual advancement into the middle class as an alternative to political agitation Booker T Washington Urged blacks to adjust to segregation and abandon agitation for civil and political rights Head of Tuskegee Institute in Alabama Week 3 Urged blacks not to try to combat segregation but to seek the assistance of white employers who would prefer a docile dependable black labor force to unionized whites Channeling aid from wealthy northern whites to Tuskegee and to black politicians and newspapers who backed his program The Rise of the AFL Samuel Gompers founded the American Federation of Labor Should not seek economic independence or purse the Knights utopian dream of creating a cooperative commonwealth Rather the labor movement should devote itself to negotiating with employers for higher wages and better working conditions for its members Business unionism Gompers embraced the idea of freedom of contract AFL restricted its members to skill workers Effectively excluding the vast majority of unskilled workers blacks women and new European immigrants AFL centered on sectors of the economy like printing amp building construction dominated by small competitive businesses with workers who frequently were united by craft skill and ethnic background AFL unions had little presence in basic industries like steel and rubber The Women s Era Women s movement reflected the same combination of expanding activities and narrowing boundaries 3 decades during which women although still denied the vote enjoyed later opportunities than in the past for economic independence and played a greater and greater role in public life Women s Christian Temperance Union Largest female organization in that era The New Imperialism Week 3 Last 14 of the 19th century was known as the age of imperialism US remained a secondrate power for most of the period Justification for this expansion of imperial power was that it would bring modern civilization to the supposedly backward peoples of the nonEuropean world Empire was another word for exploitation American Expansionism Territorial expansion had been a feature of American life since before independence Americans were increasingly aware of themselves as an emerging world power The Lure of Empire One group of Americans who spread the nation s influence overseas were religious missionaries Dwight Moody Methodist evangelist sent more than 8000 missionaries to bring light to heathen worlds across the globe Missionary work offered employment to those with few opportunities at home including blacks and women The depression heightened the belief that a more aggressive foreign policy was necessary to stimulate American exports Pledge of Allegiance and standing for the StarSpangled Banner came into existence during the 1890s Yellow Press were mixing sensational accounts of crime and political corruption with aggressive appeals to patriotic sentiments The Splendid Little War All these factors contributes to America s emergence as a world power in the SpanishAmerican War of 1898 American battleship Maine in Havana Harbor was destroyed losing 270 lives After Spain rejected a ceasefire on the island and eventually Cuban independence McKinley asked Congress for a declaration of war Week 3 Teller Amendment The US has no intention of annexing or dominating the island John Hay called the SpanishAmerican war a splendid little war Lasted 4 months Resulted in fewer than 400 American combat deaths Admiral George Dewey defeated a Spanish fleet becoming the first American army units to engage in combat outside the Western Hemisphere Roosevelt at San Juan Hill Highly publicized land battle of the war took place in Cuba Charge up San Juan Hill outside Santiago by Roosevelt s Rough Riders Roosevelt believed that a war would reinvigorate the nation s unity and sense of manhood which had suffered since the 1890s Roosevelt became a national hero and was elected governor of New York that fall In 1900 Roosevelt became McKinley s vice president An American Empire 10 The war quickly escalated from a crusade to aid the suffering Cubans to an imperial venture that ended with the US in possession of a small overseas empire The US acquired the Philippines Puerto Rico and the Pacific island of Guam in the treaty that ended the war US acquired a permanent lease on naval stations in Cuba including what is now the facility at Guantanamo Bay Platt Amendment Passed by a single vote Cuban patriots were terribly disappointed American interest in its new possessions had more to do with trade than gaining wealth from natural resources or largescale American settlement American naval and commercial power could ow be projected throughout the hemisphere Week 3 Open door policy Demanded that European powers who had recently divided China into commercial spheres of influence grant equal access to American exports Referred to the free movement of goods and money not people Even though US banned the immigration of Chinese into this country we still insisted on access to their markets and investment opportunities The Philippine War Large planters looked forward to greater access to American markets and local elites hoped that the American presence would fend off radical changes proposed by rebellious nationalist movements Nationalists and labor leaders admired America s democratic ideals and believed that American participation in the destruction of Spanish rule would lead to social reform and political selfgovernment Once McKinley decided to retain possession of the islands the Filipino movement turned against the US Resulting in a second war far longer and bloodier than the SpanishAmerican conflict Least remembered war of all American wars McKinley administration justified its policies on the grounds that its aim was to uplift and civilize and Christianize the Filipinos The colonial administration modernized the islands Expanded railroads and harbors brought in American schoolteachers and public health officials and sought to modernize agriculture US had obligations to its little brown brothers Under US rule Puerto Rico became a lowwage plantation economy controlled by absentee corporations lts residents were the poorest in the entire Caribbean by 1920s Citizens or Subjects 11 American rule also brought with it American racial attitudes Week 3 The American system of government had no provision for permanent colonies Foraker Act of 1900 Declared Puerto Rico an insular territory Denied Puerto Rico a further path to statehood Hawaii became a traditional territory Puerto Rico became known as the world s oldest colony because since 1493 it has lacked full self government Remains in a kind of political limbo on the brink of statehood or independence Drawing the Global Color Line One lesson countries learned from the US was that the failure of Reconstruction demonstrated the impossibility of multiracial democracy Giving African Americans the right to vote was a terrible mistake that produced all kinds of corruption and misgovernment Republic or Empire Opponents formed the Antilmperialist League United writers and social reformers who believed American energies should be directed at home businessmen fearful of the cost of maintaining overseas outposts ad raises who did not wish to bring nonwhite populations the US Liberty tracts Warning that empire was incompatible with democracy 12


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