American History-Week 4
American History-Week 4 History 1200
Popular in Survey of American History Since 1865
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
This 16 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyson Hankins on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1200 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Week 4 American History Chapter 18 Progressive Era Progressive came into common use around 1910 as a way of describing a broad loosely defined political movement of individuals and groups who hoped to bring about significant change in American social and political life Forwardlooking businessmen who realized that workers must be accorded a voice in economic decision making Labor activists bent on empowering industrial workers Members of female reform organizations who hoped to protect womenchildren from exploitation Social scientists who believed that academic research would help to solve social problems Members of an anxious middle class who feared that their status was threatened by the rise of big businesses Farms and cities Progressive era was a period of explosive economic growth fueled by increasing industrial production rapid rise in population and the continued expansion of the consumer marketplace Golden age American agriculture took a turn to success after recovering from the depression in the 1890s 21 cities in the US whose population exceeded over 100000 in 1910 New York with 47 million residents More than 13 of the country s mining and manufacturing workers lived in actual poveny The muckrakers Week 4 Some saw the city as a place where corporate greed undermined traditional American values New generation of journalists writing for masscirculation national magazines exposed the ills of industrial and urban life Shame of the Cities McClure s Magazine Novels Carrie The Jungle Immigration as a global process Progressiveera immigration formed a part of a larger process of worldwide migration set in motion by industrial expansion and the decline of traditional agriculture Numerous causes inspired this massive uprooting of population Rural parts of Europe and Asia had widespread poverty and illiteracy burdensome taxation and declining economies Political turmoil at home Millions of Americans today trace their ancestry to an immigrant who passed through Ellis island By 1910 17 of the American population was foreignborn the highest percentage in the country s history By 1910 nearly 35 of the workers in the 20 leading manufacturing and mining industries were foreign born The immigrant quest for freedom Immigrants wanted to come to America because they wanted freedom and to escape from hopeless poverty New immigrants cluster in closeknit ethnic neighborhoods with their own shops theaters and community organizations and often spoke in their native tongues Consumer freedom Week 4 Cities were also the birthplace of a massconsumption society that added a new meaning to American freedom Large downtown department stores chain stores in urban neighborhoods and retail mailorder houses for farmers and smalltown residents Electric sewing machines washing machines vacuum cleaners and record players Low wages unequal distribution of wealth and the South s persistent poverty limited the consumer economy Mass consumption became the foundation for a new understanding of freedom as access to the cornucopia of goods made available by modern capitalism Leisure activities Amusement parks dance halls and theaters Song and dance comedy acrobats magicians and trained animals The working woman Traditional gender roles were changing more dramatically Shoppers and in places of entertainment like cinemas and dance halls More and more women were working for wages Black women still primarily worked as domestics or in souther cotton fields Immigrant women were confined to low paying factory employment In 1920 of 8 million women working for wages 14 were married and living with their husbands As housewives women experienced oppression and acted as a servant to her husband and children The rise of fordism Henry Ford Son of immigrant lrish farmer Worked as an apprentice in Michigan machine shops Engineer for the Edison Illuminating Company Week 4 Didn t invent the automobile Developed the techniques of production and marketing that brought it within the reach of ordinary Americans Ford Motor Company Introduced Model T Simple light vehicle sturdy enough to navigate the country s poorly maintained roads Concentrated on standardizing output and lowering prices Moving assembly line Car frames were brought to workers on a continuously moving conveyor belt Reduced time and expanded output Raised wages at his factory of 5 dollars a day His workers must be able to afford the goods being produced by factories The promise of abundance Economic production shifted from capital goods steel railroad equipment to consumer products advertising increasing sales Numerous products took liberty as a brand name or used an image of the Statue of Liberty as a sales device An american standard of living Offered a new language for criticizing the inequalities of wealth and power in Progressive America Industrial freedom Complaints of a loss of freedom came from poorly paid factory workers and from betteroff employees Key to increasing industrial freedom lay in empowering workers to participate in economic decision making via strong unions Workers deserved a voice not only in establishing wages and working conditions but also in making such managerial decisions as the relocation of factories layoffs and the distribution of profits Week 4 Socialist presence Socialist party Surviving late 19th century radicals and followers of Bellamy Called for immediate reforms such as free college education legislation to improve the condition of laborers and democratic control over the economy through public ownership of railroads and factories Gospel of debs Spread the socialist gospel and linked it to ideals of equality selfgovernment and freedom Eugene V Debs Railroad union leader who had been jailed during the Pullman Strike Debs received over 900000 presidential votes in 1912 AFL and IWW AFL membership tripled to 16 mil between 1900 and 1904 Sought to forge closer ties with forwardlooking g corporate leaders willing to deal with unions as a way to stabilize employee relations AFL president Gompers joined with George Perkins National Civic Federation Accepted the right of collective bargaining for responsible unions Helped settle hundreds of disputes and encouraged improvements in factory safety and the establishment of pension plans for longterm workers Most employers nonetheless viewed unions as intolerable interference with their authority and resisted them stubbornly AFL mainly represented most privileged American workers Skilled industrial and craft laborers Mostly white male and native born Industrial Workers of the World IWW Part trade union part advocate of a workers revolution Week 4 A fraternal hand to every wageworker no matter what his religion fatherland or trade Sought to mobilize those excluded from the AFL New immigrants on strike IWW printed leaflets posers and banners in multiple languages and insisted that each nationality enjoy representation on the committee coordinating a walkout Persuaded local religious leaders shopkeepers and officeholders to support the strikes Lawrence Massachusetts The city s huge woolen mills employed 32000 men women and children Worked 6 days a week and earned 16 cents per hour State legislature enacted a 54 hour workweek to reduce weekly takehome pay Children were illnourished illfed and illclothed New Orleans 10000 black and white dockworkers prevented employers efforts to eliminate their unions and reduce their wages Labor and Civil Liberties Labor movement demanded the right to assemble organize and spread their views Investigations revealed the absence of free speech in many factory communities Threats of violence or suppression from authorities was their punishment Lack of union halls organizers relied on songs street theater impromptu organizing meetings and street corner gathers to spread their message and attract suppon New feminism Feminist Alliance Constructed apartment houses with communal kitchens cafeterias and daycare centers to free women from the constraints of the home Week 4 Heterodoxy Merged issues like the vote and greater economic opportunities with open discussion of sexuality Artistic revolution Expressive dance based on free movement of a body liberated from the constraints of tradition technique and costume Exhibition that exposed New Yorkers to a new cubist paintings from Europe by artists previously unknown to the US like Picasso Rise of personal freedom Sigmund Freud Writings on infantile sexuality repression and the irrational sources of human behavior were widely known Issues of intimate personal relations previously confined to private discussion blazed forth in popular magazines and public debates Feminism greater liberty free sexual expression and reproductive choice Greenwich Village became a center of sexual experimentation Attracted many homosexuals and organized demands for gay rights Gay community became an important element of the Village s lifestyle Birthcontrol movement Growing presence of women demanded the access to birth control Gave political expression to changing sexual behavior Enjoy a sexual life without necessarily bearing children No woman can call herself free who does not own and control her own body and can choose consciously whether she will or will not be a mother Sanger opened a clinic and began distributing contraceptive devices to poor Jewish and Italian women Sentenced to a month in prison Week 4 Slowly laws banning birth control started to change but remained unavailable in many other states Native american progressivism Progressive impulse Brought together lndian intellectuals to promote discussion of the plight of Native Americans in the hope that public exposure would be the first step toward remedying injustice Created a panIndia public space independent of white control Effective freedom Social legislation government action to address urban problems and the insecurities of workingclass life originated in Germany but soon entered the political vocabulary of the United States Progressives believed that the modern era required a fundamental rethinking of the functions of political authority Whether aim was to combat the power of giant corporations protect consumers civilize the marketplace or guarantee industrial freedom at the workplace Progressives could reject the traditional assumption that powerful government power a threat to freedom Effective freedom Highly formal and limited concept of liberty Freedom was a positive not a negative concept State and local reforms In the Western world social legislation proliferated in the early 20th century Progressive Democracy Progressives hoped to reinvigorate democracy by restoring political power to the citizenry and civic harmony to a divided society Political reformers could help us create a unified people devoted to greater democracy and social reconciliation Week 4 The electorate was simultaneously expanded and contracted empowered and removed from direct influence on many functions of government 17th Amendment Provided US senators be chosen by popular vote rather than by state legislatures Government by expert Most Progressive thinkers were highly uncomfortable with the real world of politics which seemed to revolve around the pursuit of narrow class ethnic and regional interests The government could best exercise intelligent control over society through a democracy run by impartial experts who were in many respects unaccountable to the citizen Order efficiency and centralized management Important theme of Progressive reform Drift continuing to operate according to the outmoded belief in modern social problems Mastery applying scientific inquiry to modern social problems Political freedom was less a matter of direct participation in government than of qualified persons devising the best public policies Jane Addams and hull house Women became central to the political history of the Progressive era Challenged the barriers that excluded them from formal political participation Developed a democratic grassroots vision of Progressive government Jane Addams Daughter of Illinois businessman Graduated college Never married Founded Hull House Week 4 Settlement house devoted to improving the lives of immigrant poor Built kindergartens and playgrounds for children established employment bureaus and health clinics and showed female victims of domestic abuse how to gain legal protection Spearheads for reform By 1900 more than 80000 collegeeducated women were in the US Female activism spread Produced prominent Progressive figures like Julia Lathrop and Florence Kelley Campaign for woman suffrage More than 2 million members of the NAWSA in 1917 By 1900 more than half the states allowed women to vote in local elections dealing with school issues Wyoming Colorado ldaho amp Utah adopted full women s suffrage Some thought states were using suffrage to attract more females to their predominately male states Illinois became the first state east of the Mississippi River to allow women to vote in presidential elections Maternalist reform Female reformers helped to launch a mass movement for direct government action to improve the listing standards of poor mothers and children Laws providing mothers pensions spread rapidly after 1910 Hoped these laws would subvert women s dependence on men the latter that they would strengthen traditional families and the motherchild bond By 1917 30 states enacted laws limiting the hours of labor of female workers Idea of economic citizenship Brandeis envisioned a different welfare state from that of the maternalist reformers One rooted less in the idea of healthy motherhood than in the notion of universal economic entitlements 1O Week 4 Right to a decent income Protection against unemployment amp workrelated accidents 22 states had enacted workmen s compensation laws by 1913 First wedge that opened the way for broader programs of social insurance State minimum wage laws and most laws regulating working hours still only applied to women Progressive presidents Roosevelt Taft Wilson Theodore Roosevelt In September 1901 McKinley was assassinated in Buffalo NY At age 42 vice president Roosevelt became the youngest man ever to hold the office of president lmpetuous energetic individual with a penchant for what he called the strenuous life Model for the 20th century president Actively and continuously engaged in domestic and foreign affairs Soon after in office Roosevelt shocked the corporate world by announcing his intention to persecute under the Sherman Antitrust Act the Northern Securities Company JP Morgan owned the stock and directed the affairs of 3 major western railroads Monopolized transportation between the Great Lakes and the Pacific In 1904 Supreme Court ordered Northern Securities dissolved Roosevelt and economic regulation Roosevelt believed that the president should be an honest broker in labor disputes instead of automatically siding with employers like his predecessors had usually done Reelected in 1904 he pushed for more direct federal regulation of the economy 11 Condemned the misuse of the vast power conferred by vast wealth Week 4 In 1906 Congress passed the Hepburn Act giving the ICC the power to examine railroads business records and to set reasonable rates Significant step in the development of federal intervention in the corporate economy Pure Food and Drug Act Established a federal agency to police the quality and labeling of food and drugs Meat Inspection Act John Muir and the spirituality of nature US led Europe in the conservation of natural resources First national park was created by Congress in 1872 Yellowstone in Wyoming John Muir Scottishborn naturalist Organized the Sierra Club Help preserve forests from uncontrolled logging by timber companies Love of nature stemmed from deep religious feelings Nearly blinded in an accident in Indianapolis machine shop he found in the restoration of his sight and inspiration to appreciate God s creation Calls forests God s first temples Conservation movement Under Roosevelt is when conservation became a concrete federal policy Moved to preserve parts of the natural environment from economic exploitation Relying on Gifford Pinchot Roosevelt ordered millions of acres be set aside as wildlife preserves and encouraged Congress to create new national parks Yosemite Yellowstone and Glacier required removal of Indians who hunted and fished there as well as the reintroduction of animals that had previously disappeared Someways conservation was a Progressive reform 12 Week 4 Served the public good while preventing special interests from causing irreparable damage to the environment West s scarcest resource water cried out for regulation Governments at all levels moved to control the power of western rivers building dams and irrigation projects to regularize their flow prevent waste and provide water for largescale agriculture and urban development Taft in office 13 Taft Federal judge from Ohio Served as governor of the Philippines after Spanish American War Temperamentally more conservative than Roosevelt he pursued antitrust policy more aggressively Had Congress declare Rockefeller s Oil Co in violation of the Sherman Antitrust Act Ordered its breakup into separate marketing producing and refining companies American Tobacco Court ordered to end pricing policies that were driving smaller firms out of business Rule of reason In effect implemented Roosevelt s old distinction between good and bad trusts Supported 16th Amendment Graduated income tax PayneAldrich Tariff Reduced rates on imported goods but not nearly as much as reformers wished Roosevelt challenged Taft for the Republican nomination and was defeated Roosevelt launched an independent campaign as the head of the new Progressive Party Week 4 Election of 1912 Four way contest between Taft Roosevelt Woodrow Wilson Democrat and Eugene Debs Socialist New freedom and new nationalism Wilson insisted that democracy must be reinvigorated by restoring market competition and freeing government from domination by big businesses Wilson feared big businesses as much as he feared the power of the corporations New Freedom Envisioned the federal government strengthening antitrust laws protecting the right of workers to unionize and actively encouraging small businesses Creating the conditions for the renewal of economic competition without increasing government regulation of the economy Progressive Party platform offered numerous proposals to promote social justice Laid out a blueprint for a modern democratic welfare state complete with woman suffrage federal supervision of corporate enterprise national labor and health legislation for women and children an 8 hour work day and living wage for all workers and a national system of social insurance covering unemployment medical care and old age Described by Roosevelt as the most important document since the end of the Civil War Wilson s first term Republican split ensured a sweeping victory for Wilson Won by 42 of popular vote Wilson proved to be a strong executive leader Established an office at the Capitol so that he could confer regularly with members of Congress about pending legislation 1st president to hold regular press conferences in order to influence public opinion directly and continuously Delivered messages personally to Congress rather than sending them in written from like all predecessors since John Adams 14 Week 4 Moved aggressively to implement his version of Progressivism Substantially reduced duties on imports and to make up for lost revenue imposed a graduated income tax on the riches 5 was his first significant measure as president Clayton Act of 1914 Exempted labor unions from antitrust laws and barred courts form issuing injunctions curtailing the right to strike KeatingOwen Act Outlawed child labor in the manufacture of goods sold in interstate commerce Adams Act Established 8 hour work weekday on the nation s railroads Warehouse Act Extended credit to farmers when they stored their crops in federally licensed warehouses Expanding role of government Abandoned the idea of aggressive trustbusting in favor of greater government supervision of the economy Presided over the creation of 2 powerful new public agencies Federal Reserve System FRS 12 regional banks Overseen by a central board appointed by the president and empowered to handle the issuance of currency aid banks in danger of failing and influence interest rates so as to promote economic growth FRS delayed response to the Panic of 1907 Failure of several financial companies threatened a general collapse of the banking system JP Morgan assembled the funds to prop up threatened financial institutions Actions highlighted the fact that in the absence of federal regulation of banking power over finance rested entirely in private hands 15 Week 4 2nd expansion of national power occurred in 1914 Federal Trade Commission FTC Investigate and prohibit unfair business activities such as pricefixing and monopolistic practices FRS and FTC were both welcomed by many business leaders as means of restoring order to the economic marketplace and warding off more radical measures for curbing corporate power Social ferment and political mobilization of the Progressive era had given birth to a new American state New laws administrative agencies and independent commissions government at the local state and national levels had assumed the authority to protect and advance industrial freedom Government had established rules for labor relations business behavior and financial policy protected citizens from market abuses and acted as a broker among the groups whose conflicts threatened to destroy social harmony 16
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