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Chapter 7 Notes

by: Emily Clark

Chapter 7 Notes HNRS 2010

Emily Clark
Introduction to Critical Thinking
Dawn Shinew

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About this Document

An outline style of notes for chapter 7
Introduction to Critical Thinking
Dawn Shinew
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Clark on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HNRS 2010 at Bowling Green State University taught by Dawn Shinew in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Critical Thinking in OTHER at Bowling Green State University.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
ASkiIlg the Right QHBStiOIlS Chapter 7 Are there any Fallacies in the Reasoning After all of the steps already covered in this textbook the next major question is How acceptable is the conclusion in light of the reasons provided The task now is to separate the best reasonsthose you want to treat most seriouslyfrom the weak reasons The first step is to examine the reasoning structure to determine whether the communicator s reasoning has depended on false or highly doubtful assumptions These tricks are also called Fallacies Three common tricks are Providing reasoning that requires erroneous or incorrect assumptions which leads to an irrelevant conclusion Distracting us by making information seem relevant to the conclusion when it is not Providing support for the conclusion that depends on the conclusion s already being true So a Fallacy is a reasoning trick that an author might use while trying to persuade you to accept a conclusion Many fallacies are so common that they even have names Fortunately you don t need to be aware of all the fallacies and their names to locate them A good way to find fallacies is to remember that the more questionable the assumption is the less relevant the reasoning will be Some reasons will be so irrelevant to the conclusion that you would have to supply blatantly erroneous assumptions to provide a logical link These are some of the most common fallacies on pages 7886 of the textbook there are exercisesexamples of each of the different fallacies An attack or an insult on the person rather than directly addressing the person39s reasons Making the assumption that a proposed step will set off an uncontrollable chain of undesirable events when procedures exist to prevent such a chain of events Falsely assuming that because part of a problem would remain after a solution is tried the solution should not be adopted An attempt to justify a claim by appealing to sentiments that large groups of people have in common falsely assumes that anything favored by a large group is desirable Supporting a conclusion by citing an authority who lacks special expertise on the issue at hand The use of emotionally charged language to distract readers and listeners from relevant reasons and evidence Distorting our opponent39s point of view so that it is easy to attack thus we attack a point of view that does not truly exist Assuming only two alternatives when there are more than two Falsely assuming that because you have provided a name for some event or behavior that you have also adequately explained the event The tendency for people or organizations to underestimate how long they will need to complete a task despite numerous prior experiences of having underestimated how long something would take to finish The use of vague emotionally appealing virtue words that dispose us to approve something without closely examining the reasons An irrelevant topic is presented to divert attention from the original issue and help to quotwinquot an argument by shifting attention away from the argument and to another issue The fallacy sequence in this instance is as follows a Topic A is being discussed b Topic B is introduced as though it is relevant to topic A but it is not and c Topic A is abandoned An argument in which the conclusion is assumed in the reasoning These are not all of the possible fallacies but it is a good start You should reject reasoning when the author attacks a person or a person39s attacks a straw person background instead of the person39s ideas presents a faulty d11emma uses slippery slope reasoning explains by naming re ects a search for perfect solutions d1verts attentlon from the 1ssue ina ro riatel a eals to common pI p y pp d1stracts w1th g11tter1ng genera11t1es op1nlon begs the question appeals to questlonable author1ty introduces a red herring appeals to emotlons o The textbook recommends that you consult others texts and some Web sites to expand your awareness and understanding of the reasoning fallacies


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