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by: Aaron Holmes


Marketplace > Kansas > Psychlogy > HowDoesCognitionChangeOverTime pdf
Aaron Holmes


Sunkey Sun

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About this Document

Notes from the first class of the semester on cognition and changes in development over time
Sunkey Sun
One Day of Notes
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This 2 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Aaron Holmes on Tuesday September 9, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at Kansas taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 75 views.


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Date Created: 09/09/14
How Does Cognition Change Over Time Z September ZD14 19 Continuous or Discontinuous o Does development occur gradually or in stages I Stagelike view I Nostage view 0 The stagelike discontinuous view I Cognitive development goes through a series of distinct changes I Children39s entry into a new stage involves relatively sudden qualitative changes that affect children39s thinking in broadly unified ways D eg Piaget39s stage theory 9 Children in the preoperational stage 27 years lack conservation 9 Children in the concrete operational stage 711 years develop conservation 0 The no stage continuous view I Agerelated changes are gradual rather than sudden I Development occurs skill by skill task by task rather than in a broadly unified way I Support a child often will behave in accord with one stage on one task but in accord with a different stage on another task 0 Whether development is continuous or discontinuous often depends on how you look at it and how often you look I eg height over time Domaingeneral vs Domain specific o Domaingeneral I At any point in time different intellectual skills are equally influenced by the same set of factors I Knowing a child39s ability for one domain can tell us something about hisher level in other domains I The brain works as a whole there are no quotmodulesquot I Support children39s levels of many mental abilities are correlated o Domain specific I Different aspects of thinking develop independently I Knowing the level of one ability tells us nothing about the level of other abilities I The brain is modular there are certain brain areas dedicated to performing specific cognitive tasks and different modules work independently without influencing each other Stable vs Plastic 0 Stable view I A child39s cognitive level relative to peers stays stable over time I Effects of early experience are permanent the tape recorder model of development Kagen 1976 Plastic view I Development does not proceed as tape recorder but is relatively plastic I Negative effects of early experience can be altered if the environment changes for the better 0 More support for stability I Children reared in nonsimulation institutions showed impaired intelligence and such impairment maintained long after the children left the institutions Support for plasticity I Skeels 1966 D The negative effects of early experience can be altered to some degree if the environment can be changed for the better Conclusion 0 O 0 C02 Dev Page 1 I Development involves both stability and plasticity What is changing over time 0 Cognitive development involves changes in the way information is represented I Representation the mental encoding of information I Children at different ages represent their worlds in different ways D eg the development of mental representation 0 Another example I The development of mental operation D Child unable to mentally reverse an event 0 Children in the preoperational stage are less capable of performing mental operation but later are better at it 0 Cognitive development involves changes at the neural level Cog Dev Page 2


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