Lecture and reading notes
Lecture and reading notes BIO 180-14
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by BreAnne Conrad on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 180-14 at Arizona State University taught by Diehl, Cody John in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 8 views.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Psych lllClass Notes 393 WHAT IS PSYCHOLOGY gt The scienti c study of the mind and behavior theories by scienti c evidence empirical evidence The mind is personality consciousness brain activity ect HOW DO WE STUDY THE MIND VOVVVVVVVVVV Experiments Observe behaviors Brain scans Selfreport Reaction time Puzzles Dilemmas Though processes Consciousness Brain damage tests AREER SPECIALTIES IN PSYCHOLOGY ClinicalCounseling Therapy and research Mental health professionals IndustrialOrganization lO Business psychologists for the work place Get a masters to be a consultant for business government educa onect Observe the behaviors of employees in the workplace to improve ef ciency Not a mental health professional Get a PhD and you do research for lO Behavioral Neuroscience Biological components of behavior Strictly research Neuropsychologist Work with brain damage Run tests and assessments to determine brain damage and the affects Cognitive Neuroscience Mental processes and brain activities 0 How do we learn and make decisions Cultural Psychology Study how cultural backgrounds and upbringing in uences psychological processes of individuals and their views of the world almost like an anthropologist gt Social Psychologists Individual behavior and how it changes in certain contexts Persuasion Manipulation Prejudice gt School psychologists Work with children and parents to improve life quality for children There is a higher demand for school psychologists BYU offers a two year program for this OTHER THINGS WE CAN DO WITH PSYCHOLOGY Coach for athletes Teach Run a lab Research and publish Psychology of law Options are limitless WHERE DID PSYCHOLOGY COME FROM CRASH COURSE OF CHAPTER ONE gt Philosophy Socrates Aristotle Plato Descartes gt Epistemology What is it A huge branch of philosophy It s how we know the truth VVVVVV How 9 Logic 9 Gut feelings 9 Trial and error o Evidenceusing our senses and experiences 9 Reading 9 Other s experiments 9 Observation gt Physiology In early history studying the human mind was considered unscienti c and a complete waste of time If you tried to study it you d be a laughing stock However as time went on physicians wanted to study reaction times When tapped on the ankle and then the arm people responded quicker to being tapped on the arm than the ankle This hinted that because the arm was closer to the brain it took less time for the message to reach the brain gt Phrenology Though this branch of study no longer exists and has been deemed unscienti c it still played a part in starting a theory about the brain Believed that when you touched certain parts of the head each part of the head was responsible for something different 0 This did prove that certain parts of the brain were indeed responsible for certain functions gt Evolution Micro evolution within a species battle of the ttest ability to adapt to environment Macro evolution of species to species humans from monkeys 0 Charles Darwin the founder of this theory Natural selection gt Survival of the ttest Who can reproduce and spread their genes Moths in the jungle Who survives the black moth or the white the black one William James AKA quotthe father of modern psychologyquot gt Famous for functionalism The idea of understanding the adaptive value of human behavior which sometimes isn t adaptive How does human behavior promote survival Learn how something works by understanding how it doesn t work 0 We need to understand how people work when they are broken mentally ill suffer from brain damage PTSD ect Studying dead bodies Do you believe in Dualism gt Dualism is the belief that the world is both nonmaterial abstract no substance and material physical and tangible perceivable by our senses gt Both body and spirit Or do you believe in Monism gt Either all material or all nonmaterial Joseph Smith con rmed in the DampC that the world is indeed all material gt Belief that the world is all material is called Materialism gt Belief that the world is all immaterial is called lmmaterialism Berkley said that everything is part of a spirit world Do you believe in Free Will or Determinism gt Free will agency We have a choice about our destiny Part of God s plan for us gt Determinism we have no choice in our destiny No control over anything EX Actions and thoughts 0 Serial killers have no choice in whether or not they kill it s all a result in how they were raised or because of mental illness They couldn t choose to do differently Should they be punished for their crimes 393 Are you more liberal or conservative gt Liberal free thinkers very progressive They like to see change gt Conservative more religious and traditionalists They are against things like abortion and gay marriage 393 Are you more religious or nonreligious oz WHERE DOES PSYCHOLOGY STAND gt Mainstream psychology Based off of empiricism evidence that is observable through the senses Materialistic believe only in matter Determinists believe in no free will Liberal most research in psychology is conducted and interpreted by liberal ideology Nonreligious now considered a Godless eld 0 They want to explain life without God in the picture 0 They think that religious upbringing is detrimental to the population 3 PSYCHOLOGY VS PSYCHIATRY WHAT39S THE DIFFERENCE gtPs ychology Graduate school PhD Don39t prescribe medication except in New Mexico and Louisiana Have to take the GRE Graduate Record Exam Research science of Psychology Average salary 73000 If you don t know business very well likely to earn less money gt Psychiatry Medical school Take the MCAT Medical College Administration Test 0 Learn about 0 Surgery 9 Anatomy 9 Chemistry 9 And more Mental Health specialization Prescribe medications 0 Massive portion of the work Considered medical doctors Provide medicated treatment Average Salary 180000 It s rare to make less than 20000 Always oncall Chapter 2 0 RESEARCH METHODS 0 Empirical Evidence Foundation of scienti c observation and inquiry gt Without empirical evidence science can t say anything about the research 3 Scienti c method gt Start with an idea gt Form the hypothesis your predictions Predictions are about what we should observe It must be falsi ablea very signi cant element of the scienti c method If the hypothesis is not falsi able God created the universe it cannot be subject to scienti c observation and we can t evaluate the validity gt Test the hypothesis Experiment gt Record the results Keep testing over and over again If it still holds to be true you have a theory Theory viable explanation of phenomenon 9 It s not a random opinion or belief o Backed up by research 9 It s never a de nite proof or con rmation As soon as the result comes up different the theory is disproven 9 Albert EinsteinquotNo amount of experimentation can prove me right but a single experiment can prove me wrongquot 9 When evidence is consistent with our theory it boosts our con dence in it but it never makes it a 100 truth Science is constantly evolving 0 Naturally psychology is based off of empiricism gt It s a beautiful way to ask questions and nd answers gt Operates under skepticism questioning and learning more Often psychologists will take their ndings and send them to other colleagues that they know will disagree or bring their evidence to a board and have them nd all the loopholes Psychology is about learning not about being right 0 Empirical Method a set of rules and techniques for observations 0 Humanity and the scienti c method gt Does the same man step into the river twice No the river is never the same because it is constantly moving and changing the properties of everything within it Man is constantly changing and learning and growing gt Essential to remember Mental health experiments general human behavior gt Three things the make humans extremely dif cult to study 1 Complexity 0 The most complicated thing in the universe is the human brain Scientists can describe the birth of a star but when it comes to understanding how the 500 million neurons that make up the brain can create thought feelings and actions 2 Variability o No one person is identical in any way to another person In spite of that problem psychology sti tries to create a general rule for humanity I 3 Reactivity 0 No one responds the same when put in the exact same situation or dilemma 0 People are always changing 0 Psychology still likes to try and understand how people typically react to certain situations 9 IT ALL DEPENDS Psychology strives to overcome these obstacles with different research methods 39339 HOW DO WE LEARN gt Observation gt Random sampling gt Surveys gt Put subjects in dilemmas gt Ask questions 0 Louise Hay believed the cure for cancer was just changing the way you think 9 Casual observation is a very unstable method Before measuring anything we need an Operational De nition gt Operational de nition a description of a property in concrete measurable terms gt You HAVE to have concrete valid measurements Reading Notes Module 1 Integumentary System Basically the skin but more speci cally hair nails and sweat glands gt Meant to protect the body from external forces and keep the body hydratedlubricated and help create vitamin D Skeletal The bones joints cartilage Everything that makes up the structure of the human body gt Creates blood cells and provides storage for fat and materials Muscular Muscles and tendons gt The system that provides the body with movement create body heat shivering and keeps the body s posture Lymphatic Lymph nodes lymphatic vessels various organs gt Rids the body of foreign bodies ghts sickness regulates tissue uid and absorbs the body s fatty acids in blood PH Digestive Mouth esophagus stomach intestines and various organs gt The mechanical and chemical function of digestion to break down food and absorb nutrients and ridding the body of waste in the body Endocrine Pituitary gland thyroid pancreas glands gt Releases hormones and in uences the growth and development especially in the early years Responsible for metabolism and reproduction as well as other physiological processes Cardiovascular Heart blood vessels blood gt Uses blood as a vehicle to distribute gas nutrition hormones and waste Also an aid for immune responses and temp regulation Respiratory Lungs airways respiratory muscles gt Exchanges carbon dioxide and oxygen between the external environment and the blood Also regulates blood PH Nervous Brain spinal cord nerves sensory receptors gt Responsible for senses control over the body cognitive reasoning and lots of physiological processes Control center Urinary Kidneys bladder uterus and urethra gt Maintains PH and regulates water and rids the body of waste Reproductive gt Female ovaries uterus mammary glands vagina and other structures Also produces oocytes provides location for fertilization and fetal development the womb gt Male penis testes and various other structures Production of sperm and hormones to facilitate sex behavior and function BODY DIRECTIONS gt Superior above gt lnferior below gt Cephalic nearer the head Caudal nearer the tail Anterior towards the front Posterior towards the back Ventral towards the belly anterior Dorsal equivalent to posterior Proximal closer to the place of attachment Distal the opposite of proximal Lateral away from the midline Medial the opposite of lateral Superficial the surface or towards the surface Deep under or below the surface oz AampP TERMINOLOGY oz ANATOMICAL DIVISIONS AND SUBDIVISIONS VVVVVVVVVVV j lirilt ajiri i M WEEK virgiL i i A u 7 V LL if quot PF quot I 1 1 i 39 MEITilquot hm a w A VILHMMH i m M l rm 1 fuming i m 7 HEEEIFH Isliliil quot Elma111quot I if HquotJT mew iiil39limi if i LI M Elgar 39 mi i A 4 r oz BODY CAVITIES gt Thoracic Cavity gt Pelvic Cavity gt Abdominal Cavity gt Abdominopelvic Cavity 39 I39iiirtm1ii malii t39 AEEHZZI FEL HJH CATIT EI a i PEL is39lt ii tjfifi iiT t Ji K1155 a 7 a it 39i x Hz 39 l39n i far 1 L 7va In quot A l k nI v r n 1 i i r I i t a r i v 4 i a i F I W i a REE ZilZli39t ll HELL KEELE IT iFELi ili Car l ml 0 BODY PLANES gt TransverseHorizontal gt FrontalCoronal gt Sagittal and Midsagittal tiELl LJlE j EEiZil 1ilel 39Tl 39Er ti a r EHEE amp quot Eliizifl lijm oz AampP TERMINOLOGY o3 HOMEOSTASIS ability to maintain internal stability HOMEOsame STASISstanding still gt Variables organssystems within the body important for survival gt gt Set point point for a variable to be deemed normal and healthy Ex Human temp set point 9860 0 To stay warm the body can increase its metabolism push the blood to the surface and cause the muscles to shiver to generate heat 0 To stay cool sweat is produced to dissipate heat as it evaporates All of this is done automatically Inability to keep the body s variables at their set points or within the normal range can lead to 0 Diabetes Dehydration Hyperthermiahypothermia Allergic reactions 0 Ect lnternal environment Fluid that surrounds cells 0 HOMEOSTATIC gt gt gt Stimuli The thing that causes a change in a variablevariables Receptor The senses that detect those variable changes Control Center The centers located throughout the body often in the brain that are Responsible for determining the set points and appropriate course of action to correct changes in variables Dictate this course of action through communication with effectors Effectors Provide the means to correct said changes in variables and bring them back to set point 0 Ex Skin muscle tissues sweat glands 9 Side note The body can temporarily change the set point for particular variables to insure survival Temp during illness Blood pressure and heart rate due to loss of blood Two main communication systems The nervous and endocrine Path of communication Stimuli to receptor 0 Receptor to afferent ber o Afferent ber is the means of which the body uses to communicate from the receptor to the control center 0 Afferent ber to control center 0 Control center to efferent ber o Efferent ber is the means of which the body uses to communicate dictations to the effectors o Efferent ber to the effector 393 HOMEOSTATIC CONTROL SYSTEM gt Receptor gt Afferentefferent bers gt Control center gt Effector FEEDBACK RESPONSE LOOPS gt Control system result in feedback loops gt Starts as a stimulus that changes a variable and ends with the effector that returns variable back to normal gt NEGATIVE feedback The loop that brings the variable back to normal Negative indicates the resulting change is opposite the initial change from 90 to 98 Regulation of blood glucose by insulin Replenishing oxygen through the lings pH of blood at 74 Cells lose and gain water through osmosis 9 Exposed to heat capillaries dilate causing increased blood ow to the surface of the skin vasodilation creating sweat to cool the body down o Exposed to the cold capiaries shrink vasoconstriction to keep the blood deeper in the body to prevent further heat loss This can cause the skin to turn blue gt When the body goes under 35 C chemical activity slows down Below 29 C the hypothalamus the body s own thermostat can no longer regulate the body temp Below 25 C death is almost certain gt POSITIVE feedback A deviation in a variable is increased Usually the result of negative feedback not doing its job adequately to solve the problem Most of the time this results in death However there are occasions when it can be bene cial Bood loss the negative feedback response is to increase heart rate BUT if the blood loss is too great essentially the heart would be oxygen deprived because there would be very little to no blood to bring pump through and be brought to the heart This would result in need of medical help to save the person An example of positive feedback being good would be during childbirth Labor contractions are enhanced by positive feedback The body releases a hormone caed oxytocin to create powerful contractions and positive feedback increases the amount of oxytocin to aid in even greater contractions to allow the body to push the baby down and stretch the cervix This continues until the birth is over
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