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Class Notes!

by: Ashley Alexander

Class Notes! CHMY 221 - 01

Ashley Alexander

GPA 3.7
Organic Chem I
Nigel D. Priestley (P) TBA

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Organic Chem I
Nigel D. Priestley (P) TBA
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Alexander on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHMY 221 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Nigel D. Priestley (P) TBA in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Organic Chem I in Chemistry at University of Montana.


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Date Created: 09/19/15
Organic Chemistry 221 92 The Concept of Bonds Bonds The springs we visualize holding atoms together don t exist Atoms are held together by energy The position in space between atoms in a system determines the energy of that system The closer atoms are the lower the energy is lower energies are more stable Definition of Bond types Ionic Attraction between ions Covalent Dative Sharing of electrons Dative bond a covalent bond where only one atom is sharing No model is perfect some are useful and some are better than others You must determine which model to use when based on the situation Examples of models Lewis structures easy usually adequate not always accurate ie resonance structures Molecular Orbital theory difficult to use used as a substitute where other models don t work can be very accurate Organic Chemistry 94 Chemistry A Search for Stability Stable species are those With filled shells Noble Gasses a Li 9Li e39 b C1 e39 9 Cl39 Two essential things to know for Organic Chemistry 1 attracts and repels amp attracts and repels 2 You can t shove something where there s something already i Democritus 460370 BCE ii Dalton 96 1803 beautiful lab notebook a Elements are made from different types of atoms b You cannot create or destroy atoms c Elements combine in simple Whole number ratios d In reactions elements rearrange separate or combine differently iii J J Thompson 1897 e39 iv Rutherford p Covalent Bonds Bohr model 1 n amp p at center 2 electrons in an orbit 3 radius of orbit corresponds to energy Problems 1 Why don t e39 fall into the nucleus if they are attracted to positive charge 2 Accelerating charged particles give off energy in the form of light Schrodinger s wave equation Map of electron probability rather than set orbits Atomic Quantum Numbers 11 principal 1 2 3 energy level 1 azimuthal 0 1 2 n 1 orbital type m1 Magnetic 1 91 directions ie 2px y z rnS spin i 12 Pauli Exclusion Principle No two electrons can have the same quantum number Aufbau Principle ordering of levels and orbitals on the periodic table Hund s rule electrons will fill empty orbitals before they will be paired together Organic Chemistry 99 The Sharing of Electrons Orbital interaction The number of atomic orbitals A0 is equal to the number of molecular orbitals MO When orbitals interact they can interfere constructively bringing the energy of the system down To move the atoms apart energy must be added so they are said to be bonded Molecular orbitals Made from linear combinations of atomic orbitals 0 Therefore the number of AOs has to equal the number of MOs Destructive interference orbitals with opposite signs of the wave function 9Antibond orbital Constructive interference orbitals with the same sign of the wave function 9 Bond orbital Mixing AOs LUMO lowest unoccupied MO HOMO highest occupied MO As Atoms are brought together the difference between HOMO and LUMO increases 69 Corn dog nuclei in the middle with the electron density surrounding in a sphere shape when viewed with the bond pointing directly at you 6 9 when viewed with the bond angle perpendicular to you there will be a node of electron density between the two nuclei A node is an area of Zero Electron density due to destructive interference An antibonding orbital will be one with a node perpendicular to the bond and separating the nuclei Hoagie two areas of electron density above and below the bond that is the sandwich lling sv I A 3 m i in the middle You will be expected to be able to identify bonding versus antibonding orbitals And 6 versus at bonds X is always the inter nuclear axis from a given diagram be able to fill in where the electrons go Rules 1 Same of MOS as AOs 2 More overlap stronger bond 3 When you pat equot into bonding MO 9 the molecule is stabilized 4 Antibonding orbitals destabilize the molecule 5 Antibonding orbitals have at least one node between the nuclei Bond Order of electrons in bonding orbitals of electrons in antibonding orbitals2 Bond order Bond order corresponds to the number of bonds between the two atoms 0 ie 0 Bond order means there will be no bond Organic Chemistry 221 83 1 15 Introduction to Organic Chemistry Organic Chemistry is the science of carbon backed up by 2600 years of study This class focuses mainly on the styles of chemistry that were developed after 1850 Molecular Model kits will be used A LOT In this class Writing out organic chemistry is important There are three types of chemists Makers Measurers Thinkers don t do experiments With organic chemistry you can make crazy things Like Maitotoxin that has a lethal dosage of 000013 g Drugs Which is a 326 billion dollar industry as of 2012


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