Week 1 Notes: Child Development Theories
Week 1 Notes: Child Development Theories PSYC 2350
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by lambdalambdalambdas on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2350 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Intro to Child Development in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Theory system of ideas that is used to describe predict explain and control mental processes and behavior from a certain point of view 0 guide your interpretation of the facts 0 determine what kinds of questions we ask Examples of Facts answers the what At the age of 3 boys are more aggressive than girls Most kids can sit up at 7 months of age Examples of Theories answers the whv Aggressive children imitate aggression from others Boys are more aggressive than girls because their parents allow them to be Five Major Theories 1 Biological aka Maturational a Genetic inheritance and biological factors like hormones or skeletal structure or muscle i Certain behaviors occur in children of certain ages because of hormonal changes or genetic inheritance ii eg children start walking at age 1 because their bones and muscles have matured enough to allow this b Maturation causes development 0 Arnold Gessell i Discovered that a lot of children of the same age start doing the same things eg walking crawling ii Identical twins parents practiced walking with one and not the other 1 Both twins started walking around the same time regardless 2 Psychoanalytic Freud a Most thoughts are unconscious i We re unaware of a lot of the thoughts that drive our behavior b Importance of drives i Sex ii Aggression c Stage Theory i Universal stages that everyone goes through ii Children develop through ordered predetermined stages iii Conflict resolution as a child determines adult personality iv Children are biologically born with an instinctual sexual energy unconsciously First year of age ii Sucking on things iii putting things in their mouths i j iv nursing v Conflict weaning gt biting vi Oral Fixations nail biters smokers emotional eaters 13 years of age ii Conflict potty training iii Leaving fun and games to go sit on toilet iv Punishments for going in diaper v Anal Fixations stingy tidy controlling Phallic i 36 years ii Sexual energy moves to the genitals iii Children develop sexual impulse unconsciously iv Sexual fixation on the parent OedipalElectra Complex v identify with samesex parent to attract a person similar to oppositesex parent Latency i 612 years of age ii Sexual energy lays dormant iii Rechanneling of energy into intelligence development Genital i 12 years of age ii Sexual energy focuses on genitals Freud s Theory can t be tested because it occurs in the unconscious Freud derived this theory by talking to adult women with psychological problems 3 BehaviorismlTraditional Learning Theory 9 b c d John Watson e opposes the other two theories Changes come from the individual s environment Rat psychology most studies done through animals i Classical conditioning ii Little Albert 11 month old child of nurse without her knowledge 1 White rate gt no fear neutral gt no response 2 Loud noise gt cries unconditioned stimulus gt unconditioned response 3 White rat loud noise gt cries unconditioned stimulus neutral gt unconditioned response 4 White rat gt cries conditioned stimulus gt conditioned response BF Skinner i Operant conditioning ii Learning from your consequences reinforcement and punishment iii Does not account for biological predispositions iv Cognition or thinking mediates learning 1 eg rewards motivate the behavior removing the reward removes the behavior 4 Social Learning Theory children can learn without any rewards just by watching others or by modeling behavior a Rewardpunishment b Imitationmodeling or observational learning 0 Albert Bandura i Inflatable punching doll ii Adult model is aggressive with the doll gt child models the aggression iii Adult model is kind with the doll gt child models the kindness d Doesn t account for the child s thoughts or cognition 5 CognitiveDevelopmental Theory thoughts motivate behavior a opposes behaviorism b the child is active not a passive recipient of their environment 0 Jean Piaget i Stage Theory of Cognitive Development children strive to control or understand their environment ii Tested children to see what stage they were in d emphasizes a child s logical thinking ability Controversies in Development Psychology 1 Nature vs Nurture 2 Quantitative vs Qualitative a Is development continuous steady slope or discontinuous sudden rapid changes jumping onto the next step 3 Passive vs Active Role of the child in their development a Passive child doesn t have much choice over their development predictable and manageable b Active child exerts a lot of influence over their development eg Piaget s Theory
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