Week 3 Notes: Prenatal Development
Week 3 Notes: Prenatal Development PSYC 2350
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by lambdalambdalambdas on Saturday September 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2350 at University of Houston taught by Dr. Miller in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see Intro to Child Development in Psychlogy at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/19/15
Prenatal Development 0 orderly genetic programming process 0 rapid and changing especially during the first 12 weeks 0 critical periods baby is highly sensitive to its environmentoutside factors 0 different critical periods for different parts of the body 0 first two weeks not a critical time frame because fetus has not implanted into mom yet 0 directional trends fetus develops in a specific way 0 cephalocaudal head to foot 0 proximodistal center to periphery outward 0 mass to specific cell specialization Sex Cells gametes ova or sperm meiosis cell division resulting in half the number of chromosomes ovaries take turns releasing eggs one month right other month left egg travels down fallopian tubes eggs much larger than sperm sperm swim upstream moving at three inches per hour from cervix to uterus up the fallopian tubes sperm can live up to 7 days inside of a woman first sperm to reach the ova releases chemical preventing others to enter 0 tail falls off all genetic material is in the head of sperm Twins 0 identical uncommon and random event 0 anyone can have identical twins no genetic inheritance 0 both twins must be the same gender 0 one sperm goes into one egg I egg splits into 2 o fraternal most common 0 genetic component 0 enhanced by fertility drugs I more than one egg is released at a time more than one egg can get fertilized at a time o hyperovulation ovulating three different times in one month multiple eggs released at the same time o semiidentical discovered in 2007 and extremely rare 0 2 sperms enter the egg at the same time 0 identical boygirl twins Germinal Period 02 weeks shortest period conceptionimplantationgrowth egg is called a zygote mitosis exponential cell duplication and division blastocyst five days implants in uterine wall 150 cells or so 0 turns inside out gastrolation o embryoblast turns into the fetus o trophoblast cells are now on the outside form into placenta amniotic stuffs and umbilical cord I if blastocyst implants in fallopian tube ectopic pregnancy I tube bursts Embryonic Period 38 weeks egg is now an embryo HCG is a baby hormone that the egg produces this is what is detected by pregnancy tests cephalocaudal trend arms develop before legs Ectoderm mesoderm endoderm cell specialization ectoderm nerve cells sensory organs brain spinal cord and skin mesoderm muscles heart muscle circulatory system and skeletal system endoderm stomach liver kidneys intestines etc 68 weeks morning sickness and all organs are in place umbilical cord develops 0 may be caused by increasing HCG levels irritating the thyroid o HCG prevents miscarriage 0 head is larger than rest of body proximodistal trend 0 high rate of spontaneous abortion during this time 13 of pregnancies I some defect in embryo I uterus problems or zygote does not implant properly I environmental substance enters the body physical injuries drugs Fetal Period 938 weeks longestpenod refines existing organ systems develop nervous system 0 increase of synaptic connections lengthening and fattening of the fetus fetus moves around a lot more and more recognizable as human placenta fully functional at 13 weeks toxic substances can still pass into the baby HCG levels drop external genitals develop and sex can be determined bones start to develop but not strong enough to push on mom until 18th week eyes remain closed until 7th month 18 20 weeks fetus starts sucking on thumb and kicking mom aids in reflexes brain and muscle development o 24 weeks fetal respiration swallowing amniotic fluid and spitting it back out 0 strong umbilical cord 0 viable can survive outside the womb because lungs are functioning o vernix greasy covering or coating that protects skin from water loss 0 32 weeks womb gets very crowded as baby gets larger and mom s skin stretches o fetus s head down and much lower in the uterus causing mom to waddle Conception to birth is 38 weeks 0 average length is 20 0 average weight 75 lbs 40 weeks includes the missed period Prenatal Testing 0 less invasive uterus exam external fetal monitoring and ultrasound all done from the outside of the mother s body 0 more invasive chorionic villus sampling and amniocentesis o chorionic villus sampling done at 78 weeks for congenital defects I greater risk of miscarriage and limb deformity if done too early I results available within 24 hours I tube is inserted into the uterus and a sample of tissue is collected 0 can be inserted through vagina or the outer abdomen wall 0 amniocentesis done at 1114 weeks for older women especially where hollow needle is inserted through the abdomen into the uterus and amniotic fluid is drawn I detects chromosome abnormalities neural tube defects genetic disorders and paternity I does not detect severity results available within a couple of weeks The Birth Process Greek and Roman Civilizations o midwives and home births 0 doctors only called in for complications 0 birthing stool to support women giving birth while squatting o Csections originally done to save the baby in situations when the mother was dying o named after Julius Ceaser who was thought to be born this way 0 much more common now 35 of US births Middle AgesChristianity o sickness was seen as the work of the devil 0 lots of hospitals increased due to TB and plagues not sterile or clean 0 place to dump sick people to protect the healthy citizens o no concept of germs at this time o childbed fever many women died after giving birth at a hospital due to germs o Semmelweis suggested that doctors wash their hands before delivering babies 0 babies didn t die because there was no exchange of bodily fluids and newborns are washed after delivery anyway 0 forceps were developed during this time to help pull baby out Today 0 vacuum extractor places suction on baby s head putting pressure on the head leading to wounds and bruising o eliminated facialeye damage caused by forceps o lithotomy position laying on back with feet elevated not good for the baby or mom because gravity is not playing to your advantage 0 increases blood pressure causing distress on baby 0 convenient for the doctor to deliver the baby Stages of Birth 0 Stage 1 is longest 8 hours 0 Dilation of the cervix pulls vaginal walls open as well 0 Effacement flattening and thinning of the cervix becoming a flexible membrane 0 relaxing through contractions 0 Stage 2 o descent of baby into the birth canal and pushing o crowning head is visible 0 episiotomy surgical incision that widens the canal easing child birth 0 birth head first is the easiest 0 Stage 3 o afterbirth or placenta o contractions continue 0 placenta is delivered after the baby and is examined to make sure it is all out of the uterus CSections 0 fetal distress baby s heartrate drops and oxygen levels drop breech position feet or bottom coming out first multiple fetuses uterine rupture uterus starts collapsing on the baby mother fatigue cervix is not dilated properly fear of malpractice suits financial gain hospitals make more money by doing Csections convenience birth can be scheduled maternal requests false beliefs American Medical Association once said that if you had 1 Csection baby the rest need to be Csection babies due to possibility of uterine rupture
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