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Hahyeong Kim EDU303 Midterm Notes Chapter 2 Cognitive and Language Development Principles of Development Development depends on heredity and environment Development proceeds in relatively orderly and predictable pattems People develop at different rates Kids leam from watching others imitation is critical Stimulation Deprivation deliberate reduction or removal of stimuli from one or more of the senses Simple devices such as blindfolds or hoods and earmuffs can cut off sight and hearing while more complex devices can also cut off the sense of smell touch taste thermoception heatsense and gravity The limited visual field of the newbom approximately 8 inches from the face and qualities of that vision fuzzy and in blackandwhite serve several very important functions including protection from overstimulation and primary attention to the caregiver Piaget39s Theory of Cognitive Development Equilibrium Every time we leam we want to make sense with our previous information Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance between assimilation and accommodation which is achieved through a mechanism Piaget called equilibration As children progress through the stages of cognitive development it is important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge assimilation and changing behavior to account for new knowledge accommodation Equilibration helps explain how children are able to move from one stage of thought into the next Schemas A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world In Piaget39s view a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge As experiences happen this new information is used to modify add to or change previously existing schemas For example a child may have a schema about a type of animal such as a dog If the child39s sole experience has been with small dogs a child might believe that all dogs are small furry and have four legs Suppose then that the child encounters a very large dog The child will take in this new information modifying the previously existing schema to include this new information Assimilation The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schemas is known as assimilation The process is somewhat subjective because we tend to modify experience or information somewhat to fit in with our preexisting beliefs In the example above seeing a dog and labeling it quotdogquot is an example of assimilating the animal into the child39s dog schema Accommodation Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information a process known as accommodation Accommodation involves altering existing schemas or ideas as a result of new information or new experiences New schemas may also be developed during this process Sensorimotor Stage 02 Beginning development Lot of physical exploration Use of senses Develop object permanence if I leave the room I still exist During this stage infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects Preoperational Stage 27 Conservation 2 papers will still be 2 papers even it overlaps or moves The amount does not change when you reorient something Centration focusing on how tall big wide it is and focusing on something obvious and ignoring other factors Transformation water to ice to steam Reversibility and egocentrism At this stage kids leam through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people Concrete Operational Stage 711 Seriation ordering being able to put things in order based on characteristics Transivity being able to compare 2 things based on comparing the 3rd thing Logical thinking develops Classification Kids at this point of development begin to think more logically but their thinking can also be very rigid They tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts Formal Operational 11adult Abstract Thinking Systematic reasoning Hypothetical thinking The final stage of Piaget39s theory involves an increase in logic the ability to use deductive reasoning and an understanding of abstract ideas Vygotsky39s theory differs from that of Piaget in a number of important ways Vygotsky places more emphasis on culture affectingshaping cognitive development this contradicts Piaget39s view of universal stages and content of development Vygotsky does not refer to stages in the way that Piaget does Vygotsky places considerably more emphasis on social factors contributing to cognitive development Piaget is criticized for underestimating this Vygotsky places more and different emphasis on the role of language in cognitive development again Piaget is criticized for lack of emphasis on this Vygotsky Sociocultural theory of development Different from Piaget Pexplorationenvironment V more on social interaction Cognitive tools what we use language concepts etc to make sense of our world Intemalization when people incorporate outside ideas into their own thinking ACT I VE IN VOL VEMEN T S KEY Like Piaget Vygotsky claimed that infants are bom with the basic materialsabilities for intellectual development Piaget focuses on motor re exes and sensory abilities Vygotsky refers to Elementary Mental Functions oAttention oSensation oPerception oMemory Eventually through interaction within the sociocultural environment these are developed into more sophisticated and effective mental processes strategies which he refers to as Higher Mental Functions Memory in young children this is limited by biological factors However culture determines the type of memory strategy we develop Ex in our culture we leam notetaking to aid memory but in pre literate societies other strategies must be developed such as tying knots in string to remember or carrying pebbles or repetition of the names of ancestors until large numbers can be repeated Vygotsky refers to tools of intellectual adaptation these allow children to use the basic mental functions more effectivelyadaptively and these are culturally determined e g memory mnemonics mind maps Vygotsky therefore sees cognitive functions even those carried out alone as affected by the beliefs values and tools of intellectual adaptation of the culture in which a person develops and therefore socioculturally determined The tools of intellectual adaptation therefore vary from culture to culture as in the memory example Executive Function What is it It is a set of mental processes that help connect past experience with present action NCLD Executive Function is a set of mental processes that helps connect past experience with present action What is included Monitoring our thoughts Remembering Problem Solving Organizing Planning Strategizing Paying attention Managing time and space The Zone of Proximal Development We leam best when things are not too easy or too hard Just out of reach we need help to accomplish Scaffolding assistance to accomplish task tools to leam Independent level instructional level frustration level Language Development Noam Chomsky Linguist father of linguistics Nativist Theory We are wired to leam language LAD language acquisition device it tums on and we can leam language Behaviorist Theory All about reinforcement leaming based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning Conditioning occurs through interaction with the environment Sociocultural Theory We leam language by interacting with people Expressive language vs Perceptive language Expressive language being able to say the word Perceptive language listening skills understanding what people say hearing Language Development Overgeneralization use it more than what it applies to kids see insect sees spider that it is an insect too Undergeneralization Thinking about a word concept that is too narrow ex Cinnamon sugar in toast toast is cinn Sugar Developing Vocabulary Semantics What the word means Syntax Rules of language How we order sentences grammars 4 Main Language Skills Listening Speaking Reading Writing Chapter Summary The principles of development and examples of the principles in children s behavior ODevelopment describes the orderly durable changes that occur over a lifetime and occur as a result of maturation leaming and experience OPrinciples of development suggest that leaming experience social interaction maturation and the use of language contribute to development OPrinciples of development also suggest that development is continuous and relatively orderly and that leamers develop at different rates OBrain research suggests that development involves both creating and eliminating synaptic connections 1Use concepts from Piaget s theory of intellectual development to explain both classrooms and everyday events OAccording to Piaget people organize their experience into schemes that help them understand their world and achieve equilibrium Compatible experiences are assimilated into existing schemes incongruent experiences require an accommodation of these schemes to reestablish equilibrium OMaturation and the quality of experiences in the physical and social world combine to in uence development As children develop they progress through stages that describe general pattems of thinking Progress through the stages represents qualitative differences in the ways leamers process information and think about their experiences it does not describe simple accrual of knowledge 2Use Vygotsky s sociocultural theory to explain how language culture and instructional support can in uence learner development 3 OVygotsky describes cognitive development as the interaction between social interaction language and culture OSocial interaction provides a mechanism to help children develop an understanding that they wouldn t be able to acquire on their own OLanguage is a tool people use for cultural transmission communication and re ection on their own thinking OSocial interaction and language are embedded in a cultural context that uses the language of the culture as the mechanism for promoting development 4language development using different theories of language acquisition OBehaviorism describes language development by suggesting that children are reinforced for demonstrating sounds and words and social cognitive theory focuses on the imitation of language that is modeled Nativist theory suggests that children are genetically predisposed to language Sociocultural theory suggests that language is developed through scaffolded practice that exists within children s zones of proximal development OChildren progress from an early foundation of one and twoword utterances to fine tuning language that includes overgeneralizing and undergeneralizing and finally to producing elaborate language use that involves complex sentence structures Chapter 3 Personal Social and Moral Development Personal Development Agerelated changes in personality and the ways that individuals react to their environment Social Development The advances people make in their ability to interact and get along with others Moral Development Advances in peoples conceptions of right and wrong and prosocial behaviors and traits such as honesty faimess and respect for others Bronfenbrenner s Bioecological Model of Development The Individual biological factors and temperment Microsystem The microsystem is the innermost layer of Bronfenbrenner s model This context is closest to an individual and encompasses interpersonal relationships and direct interactions with immediate surroundings For example family members and a child s school are considered part of the microsystem Mesosystem The mesosystem includes interactions between various aspects of the microsystem A relationship between a child s family and the child s school can be considered part of the mesosystem because these two direct in uences parts of the microsystem may interact Exosystem The exosystem does not directly affect individuals rather the exosystem encompasses aspects of structures within the microsystem For example nancial difficulties within the family of origin parental job loss and so forth may affect a child but do not involve the child directly Macrosystem The macrosystem is the outermost layer of Bronfenbrenner s model This system includes social or cultural ideologies and beliefs that affect an individual s environment For example laws may be incorporated into the macrosystem Bronfenbrenner suggested that individuals constantly interact with these systems He also stated that both individuals and their environments constantly affect one another However in this original model Bronfenbrenner recognized there was not enough focus on individuals own role in their development and thus began further developing this model Bullying Often bullying is about increasing social status and distancing oneself from others perceived to be socially lower What DOES work Increasing adult supervision Directly addressing the bully after the incident Immediate appropriate consistent consequences Intervene immediately Work on a general climate of accepting differences Helping kids find other ways to gain social capital Character Development Programs for Elementary Schools Be a Bucket Filler Character Counts Second Step Positive Action Love in a Big World The 4 Rs Program Reading Writing Respect and Resolution Erikson s Theory of Psychosocial Development STAGE 1 Trust V Mistrust 01 Children develop a sense of trust when caregivers provide reliabilty care and affection A lack of this will lead to mistrust Feeding STAGE 2 Autonomy v Shame 13 Children need to develop a sense of personal control over physical skills and a sense of independence Success leads to feelings of autonomy failure results in feelings of shame and doubt ToiletTraining STAGE 3 Initiative v Guilt 36 Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose Children who try to exert too much power experience disapproval resulting in a sense of guilt Exploration STAGE 4 Industry v Inferiority 612 Children need to cope with new social and academic demands Success leads to a sense of competence while failure results in feelings of inferiority School STAGE 5 Identity v Confusion 1218 Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity Success leads to an ability to stay true to yourself while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self Social Relationships STAGE 6 Intimacy v Isolation Young Adulthood Young adults need to form intimate loving relationships with other people Success leads to strong relationships while failure results in loneliness and isolation Relationships STAGE 7 Generativity v Stagnation Adulthood Adults need to create or nurture things that will outlast them often by having children or creating a positive change that benefits other people Success leads to feelings of usefulness and accomplishment while failure results in shallow involvement in the world Work and Parenthood STAGE 8 Integrity v Despair Old Age Older adults need to look back on life and feel a sense of fulfillment Success at this stage leads to feelings of wisdom while failure results in regret bittemess and despair Re ection on life Social Development Perspective Taking The ability to understand the thoughts and feelings of other Theory of Mind An understanding that other people have distinctive perceptions feelings desires and beliefs You and I have different backgrounds different knowledge and different understandings Social Problem Solving The ability to resolve con icts in ways that are beneficial to all involved Kohlberg s Theory of Moral Development Level 1 PreConventional 1 Obedience and punishment orientation How can I avoid punishment 2 Selfinterest orientation What39s in it for me Paying for a bene t Level 2 Conventional 3 Interpersonal accord and conformity Social norms The good boy girl attitude 4 Authority and socialorder maintaining orientation Law and order morality Level 3 PostConventional 5 Social contract orientation 6 Universal ethical principles Principled conscience The first level of moral thinking is that generally found at the elementary school level In the first stage of this level people behave according to socially acceptable norms because they are told to do so by some authority gure e g parent or teacher This obedience is compelled by the threat or application of punishment The second stage of this level is characterized by a view that right behavior means acting in one39s own best interests The second level of moral thinking is that generally found in society hence the name quotconventionalquot The first stage of this level stage 3 is characterized by an attitude which seeks to do what will gain the approval of others The second stage is one oriented to abiding by the law and responding to the obligations of duty The third level of moral thinking is one that Kohlberg felt is not reached by the majority of adults Its first stage stage 5 is an understanding of social mutuality and a genuine interest in the welfare of others The last stage stage 6 is based on respect for universal principle and the demands of individual conscience While Kohlberg always believed in the existence of Stage 6 and had some nominees for it he could never get enough subjects to define it much less observe their longitudinal movement to it Chapter Summary Describe the factors in uencing personal development and explain how differences in parenting and peer interactions can in uence this development OPersonal development is in uenced by heredity parents and other adults and peers OParents can contribute to personal development by providing a structured environment that is both demanding and responsive to children39s individual needs OPeers affect personal development through the attitudes and values they communicate and by offering or not offering friendship I 2Describe characteristics that indicate advancing social development and explain how social development relates to school violence and aggression OPerspective taking allows students to consider problems and issues from others points of view OSocial problem solving includes the ability to read social cues generate strategies and implement and evaluate these strategies OSocial development in uences children39s ability to make and interact with friends and their ability to leam cooperatively in school OStudents who commit violent and aggressive acts typically have underdeveloped social skills 3 4Use descriptions of psychosocial identity and selfconcept to explain learners behaviors OErikson39s psychosocial theory an effort to integrate personal and social development is based on the assumption that development of self is a response to needs Development occurs in stages each marked by a psychosocial challenge called a crisis As people develop the challenges change OPositive resolution of the crisis in each stage results in an inclination to be trusting autonomous willing to take initiative and industrious from the period of birth through approximately the elementary school years Continued resolution of crises leaves people with a firm identity the ability to achieve intimacy desire for generativity and finally a sense of integrity as life39s end nears OThe development of identity usually occurs during high school and beyond Identity 5 moratorium and identity achievement are healthy states identity diffusion and identity foreclosure are less healthy OSelfconcept developed largely through personal experiences describes people39s cognitive assessments of their physical social and academic competence Academic selfconcept particularly in specific content areas is strongly correlated with achievement but achievement physical and social selfconcepts are essentially unrelated OAttempts to improve students selfconcepts by direct intervention are largely unsuccessful In contrast attempts to improve selfconcept as an outcome of increased success and achievement have been quite successful 6Use descriptions of moral reasoning to explain differences in people39s responses to ethical issues OPiaget suggested that individuals progress from the stage of extemal morality where rules are enforced by authority figures to the stage of autonomous morality where individuals see morality as rational and reciprocal OKohlberg39s theory of moral development is based upon people39s responses to moral dilemmas He developed a classification system for describing moral reasoning that had three levels OAt the preconventional level people make egocentric moral decisions at the conventional level moral reasoning focuses on the consequences for others and at the postconventional level moral reasoning is based on principle OThe experience of the unpleasant emotions of shame and guilt and the development of empathy mark advances in the emotional component of moral development OTeachers can promote moral development in their classrooms by emphasizing personal responsibility and the functional nature of rules that protect the rights of others Students should be encouraged to think about topics such as honesty respect for others and basic principles of human conduct Chapter 4 Learner Diversity Culture Ethnicity and race in the Classroom Cultural Mismatch A clash between a child39s home culture and the culture of the school that creates con icting expectations for students and their behaviors Multicultural Education An approach to teaching that examines the in uence of culture on learning and attempts to nd ways that student39s cultures can be used to enhance achievement What is multicultural education Prejudice Reduction to modify students attitudes towards other groups of students Content Integration to illustrate ideas using content from a variety of cultures Equity Pedagogy teaching in ways so all kids can learn Knowledge Construction teaching in a way that mitigates the cultural assumptions that underlie knowledge Empowering school culture and social structure considering how all groups are treated within the school structure Pedagogy how to teach very important in teaching Film watched A Class Divided brown eyed vs blue eyed in 3rd grade classroom English Language Programs Immersion Programs only English is spoken Advantage a lot of opportunities to learn and practice in English Disadvantage students can struggle greatly especially at the beginning discouraging Maintenance Programs students read and write in first language while teachers introduce English Advantage literacy in two languages Disadvantage teachers need to be trained in multiple languages English acquisition Transitional Programs 1 language is used as a teaching aid until English becomes pro cient then transitions to English only Advantage transition is gradual maintains 1 language Disadvantage teachers need to b e trained in multiple languages 1 language may not be maintained ESL PullOut Programs students are pulled out of the classroom to receive supplementary English instruction Advantage easier to administer Disadvantage segregation Sheltered English content instruction is adapted to reach English language learners Advantage easier to learn content Disadvantage teachers need EL training students need to already have intermediate English skills Gender Are there differences between how girls and boys learn YES AtRisk students Low SES socioeconomic status Members of minority Nonnative English speakers Other social factors What can teachers do Resiliency and grit Grit passion sticking with your future for years Working really hard marathon not a spirit The ability to learn is not xed Failure isn39t permanent Teaching Kids to be Resilient Don39t accommodate every needs Avoid eliminating all risk Teach them to problemsolve Teach kids concrete skills Ask how instead of why Don39t provide all the answers Avoid talking in catastrophic terms Let kids make mistakes Help kids manage their emotions Model resilience Chapter Summary 1Describe differences in the way intelligence is viewed and explain how ability grouping can in uence learning 2 Olntelligence is often de ned as the ability to think and reason abstractly to solve problems and to acquire new knowledge Some theories suggest that intelligence is a single entity others describe intelligence as existing in several forms OSome experts believe that intelligence is largely genetically determined others believe it is strongly in uenced by experiences Most suggest that it is determined by a combination of the two OSchools respond to differences in ability by grouping students Within and between class ability grouping is common in elementary schools tracking is prevalent in middle and secondary schools OLeaming styles are students personal approaches to leaming problem solving and processing information Research generally does not support efforts to match instruction with leaming preferences rather it suggests that teachers should help students develop awareness of their own leaming strengths 3Define socioeconomic status SES and explain how it can affect school performance 4 OSocioeconomic status includes parents income occupation and level of education SES can strongly in uence student attitudes values background experiences and school success Oln using SES to think about instruction experts recommend that we treat all students as individuals and exercise caution in generalizing from SES groups to individual students 5Describe cultural ethnic and language diversity and explain how they can in uence learning OCulture refers to the attitudes values customs and behavior pattems that characterize a social group The match between a child39s culture and the school has a powerful in uence on school success Culturally responsive teaching creates links between a student39s culture and classroom instruction It reminds us to continually keep cultural in uences in mind as we interact with leamers from different cultures OThe United States has numerous local and regional dialects Teachers often misinterpret dialects as substandard English Teachers should accept and build on student dialects and develop bidialecticism in their students 6 OEnglish language leamers are increasing in numbers in the United States due to increased immigration Approaches to helping ELL students leam English vary in their emphasis on maintaining students native language and the amount of support they provide in contentrelated instruction Olnstructional strategies to assist ELL students emphasize that teachers should become familiar with their students language backgrounds and capabilities and activate students background knowledge In addition effective teachers use concrete experiences target important vocabulary terms and provide opportunities to practice language 7Explain genderrole identity and describe steps for eliminating gender bias in classrooms 8 OGenderrole identity describes beliefs about appropriate characteristics and behaviors of the two sexes OTeachers can minimize achievement differences by treating boys and girls equally and by actively combating gender stereotypes in their teaching 9Describe characteristics of schools and qualities of teachers that promote student resilience OStudents placed at risk are those in danger of leaving school without the skills needed to function effectively in our modem world Factors that increase the probability of being atrisk include poverty transience and not speaking English as a first language OResilient leamers can succeed in school despite environmental adversities OSchools that promote resilience stress high expectations an academic focus continuous monitoring of progress and strong parent involvement OTeachers who promote resilience hold high expectations for academic success use a variety of interactive instructional and motivational strategies and demonstrate caring through sincere interest in students lives They provide greater structure and support more active teaching greater student engagement challenge and more feedback with higher success rates Chapter 5 Learners with Exceptionalities Gardner39s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Gardner theorized that there are 8 different domains of intelligences The 8 domains are relatively independent 1 Verballinguistic intelligence welldeveloped verbal skills and sensitivity to the sounds meanings and rhythms of words 2 Logicalmathematical intelligence ability to think conceptually and abstractly and capacity to discern logical and numerical pattems 3 Spatialvisual intelligence capacity to think in images and pictures to visualize accurately and abstractly 4 Bodilykinesthetic intelligence ability to control one s body movements and to handle objects skillfully 5 Musical intelligences ability to produce and appreciate rhythm pitch and timber 6 Interpersonal intelligence capacity to detect and respond appropriately to the moods motivations and desires of others 7 Intrapersonal capacity to be selfaware and in tune with inner feelings values beliefs and thinking processes 8 Naturalist intelligence ability to recognize and categorize plants animals and other objects in nature 9 Existential intelligence sensitivity and capacity to tackle deep questions about human existence such a IDEA PL 94142 The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Major Provisions FAPE Free amp Appropriate Public Education LRE Education in the Least Restrictive Environment Protection against testing discrimination Parents39 rights and due process IEP Individualized Education Program LRE General classroom with little specialized support General classroom with specialized support General classroom with pullout for special support Special Education with pushin to general classrooms Special education classroom in home school Special education classroom in another general school Special education classroom in segregated setting or residential setting less restrictive to more restrictive as you go down the list Parts of an IEP Summary of current performance Goals and accompanying objectives How and when progress will be measured reported Related services Participation in the general classroomcurriculum Assessment accommodations Chapter Summary Describe the provisions of and amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act IDEA OFederal laws and regulations require that students with exceptionalities be taught in the least restrictive environment guarantee the right to parental involvement through due process protect against discrimination in testing and provide leamers with lEPs ORecent amendments to IDEA make states responsible for locating children who need special services and have strengthened requirements for nondiscriminatory assessment due process parental involvement in IEPs and the confidentiality of student records lDescribe the most common learning problems that classroom teachers are likely to encounter OStudents with leaming disabilities also called speci c leaming disabilities encounter difficulties in acquiring and using reading writing reasoning listening or mathematical abilities OStudents with behavior disorders display serious and persistent ageinappropriate behaviors that result in social con ict personal unhappiness and often school failure OCommunication disorders are exceptionalities that interfere with students abilities to receive and understand information from others and express their own ideas or questions CA visual disability is an uncorrectable visual impairment that interferes with leaming OHearing disabilities include students with partial hearing impairments an impairment that allows a student to use a hearing aid and to hear well enough to be taught through auditory channels and students who are deaf hearing impaired enough so that students use other senses usually sight to communicate 2Identify characteristics of learners who are gifted and talented and describe methods for identifying and teaching these students OStudents who are gifted and talented display unique abilities in speci c domains Recent trends in identification deemphasize intelligence testing and include teacher parent and peer reports of unique talents and abilities OAcceleration moves these students through the regular curriculum at a faster rate enrichment provides altemative instruction to encourage student exploration 3Explain the roles of classroom teachers and teaching strategies that are effective for working with students having exceptionalities OTeachers39 responsibilities in inclusive classrooms include identifying leamers with exceptionalities adapting instruction for them and promoting their social integration and growth Oln the process of identification teachers should describe and document leaming problems and strategies they39ve tried OEffective instruction for students with disabilities uses characteristics of instruction effective with all students Providing additional scaffolding modifying homework assignments and reading materials and helping students acquire leaming strategies are also helpful OSocial acceptance for students with disabilities is developed through direct instruction modeling practice and feedback Attitudes of other students can be improved by discussions that focus on understanding and by strategies such as peer tutoring and cooperative leaming Chapter 6 Cognitive Learning Theory and Constructing Knowledge How do children learn The old view that39s newagain Children as passive receptacles for knowledge Teachers are givers of knowledge Constructivism Learning and development depend on experience People want their experiences to make sense To make sense of their experiences learners construct knowledge Constructing knowledge depends on what learners already know Social interaction facilitates learning Cognitive Constructivism Based on the work of Piaget lndividuals search for meaning Interacting with the environment is critical Social Constructivism Based on the work of Vygotsky Learners construct knowledge in a social context Then they internalize it The classroom as a community of learners These theories are not enemies It is not the opposite Cognitive Apprenticeships Modeling demonstrating skills and describe thinking aloud Scaffolding ask questions provide support and background Verbalization students try to develop their understanding in words lncreasing complexity challenge increases as pro ciency increases Chapter Summary 1Identify examples of classical conditioning concepts in events in and outside of classrooms OClassical conditioning occurs when a formerly neutral stimulus becomes associated with a naturally occurring unconditioned stimulus to produce a response similar to an instinctive or re exive response Classical conditioning can explain schoolrelated events such as test anxiety as well as outsideofschool events such as how people learn to fear riding horses if they39ve been thrown from a horse It also helps us understand how these fears can be eliminated 2 3Identify examples of operant conditioning concepts in classroom activities OOperant conditioning focuses on voluntary responses that are in uenced by consequences Consequences that increase behavior are called reinforcers whereas consequences that decrease behavior are called punishers The schedule of reinforcers in uences both the rate of initial learning and the persistence of the behavior OAntecedents precede and trigger or induce behaviors that are then usually reinforced They exist in the form of environmental stimuli prompts and cues and past experiences 5Use social cognitive theory concepts such as the nonoccurrence of expected consequences reciprocal causation and vicarious learning to explain examples of people39s behaviors 6 OSocial cognitive theory extends behaviorism and focuses on the in uence that observing others has on behavior It considers in addition to behavior and the environment learners beliefs and expectations According to social cognitive theory each can in uence the other in a process described as reciprocal causation OThe nonoccurrence of expected reinforcers can act as punishers and the nonoccurrence of expected punishers can act as reinforcers OModeling lies at the core of social cognitive theory and vicarious learning occurs when people observe the consequences for others actions and adjust their own behavior accordingly 7Identify examples of social cognitive theory concepts such as types of modeling modeling outcomes effectiveness of models and selfregulation in people39s behaviors 8 OModeling can be direct from live models symbolic from books movies and television or synthesized combining the acts of different models OThe effectiveness of models describes the likelihood of an observer39s imitating a model39s behavior and depends on perceived similarity perceived status and perceived competence OSocial cognitive theory also helps explain events such as why teachers describing their thought processes as they demonstrate skills is effective and why students who set goals monitor progress toward the goals and assess the extent to which the goals are met achieve higher than peers who don39t 9Identify examples of behaviorist and social cognitive theory concepts in teachers39 work with students from diverse backgrounds OBehaviorism helps us understand why teachers who treat their students with courtesy and respect create classroom environments that are inviting for all students regardless of their racial cultural or ethnic backgrounds OSocial cognitive theory helps us understand why minority role models both direct and symbolic can be effective for promoting desirable personal characteristics such as accepting personal responsibility and displaying prosocial behaviors
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