Week Two Notes 09/16/15
Week Two Notes 09/16/15 WS 268 106
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Chelsey Smith on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to WS 268 106 at Pace University taught by Dr. Jason Whitesel in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 113 views. For similar materials see Men and Masculinities in Women and Gender studies at Pace University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Topic Disscussed Transgressive Acts War against boys Parents responses to nonconformity Lazy Read this section Transgressive acts are violations of the way in which someone is expected to act Ferguson39s study focused mostly on the way in which African American boys are treated more seriously in schools especially when it comes to disciplinary action The war against boys section discusses how boys are treated differently than girls in school and how it is potentially hindering their success Although there are clear ways in which each gender is treated differently this argument often turns into an anti feminist argument It is also possible that for some of the points gender is not the causation of the difference in treatment Parents reacted differently to their sons39 acts of nonconformity No one really had a problem when the girls wanted to play with quotboy toysquot while parents were much more hesitant as a whole to let their sons play with quotgirl toysquot Heterosexual mothers and gaylesbian parents were more lenient than heterosexual fathers Often heterosexual fathers viewed their sons39 sexuality as a reflection on their parenting For heterosexual mothers and gaylesbian parents the focus was much more on worrying about how the child will be treated because of their sexuality Class Discussion Broken Down Transgressive Acts Study Questions What are some examples of what the quotSociohistorical scriptquot teaches menwomen Why are the physically transgressive acts of African American boys taken more seriously Why would African American boys trust authority less If winning wasn39t a big deal then why did they fight Transgressive acts Violations of expected or imposed boundaries Sociohistorical script The way that men and women are trained to act The way society has taught us to behave How we preform our gender based on this wellworn script Ex Women are nurturers and men are the breadwinners leading men to be less involved in raising their children Ferguson39s study was centered around young African American children Looked at three types of transgressive acts 1 Heterosexual Power Alain39s Graffiti 1 Girls and how they could be sexualized or sexually assaulted even if not in a sexual manner 2 Physical interactions 3 Alain39s graffiti a quotI39m gonna fuck my ten cent teacher and this five cent school Fuck me hoe Yeah Babyquot b Shows how young boys will feminize the school or the teacher as if he could take advantage of them c Undervaluing the female iWoud this statement have been different if the teacher was male d Also a means of using economic power iMaking it sound as if he could buy the school and had financial power over the teacherschool 4 There were different punishments for each type of offense 5 Often when girls enact the same actions for example pulling their pants down it is not read as a threat or as much of a threat so it often goes underreported Can be emasculating to report 6 Black males are hypersexualied in society so the teacher may take it as a more serious threat whereas it may be seen as quotjust a phasequot for a white boy the same age 2 Power Reversals Class Acts 1 Open disruptions in class a Girls are given more leeway when it comes to this as a means of empowering girls to have a voice 2 Again offenses by African American boys were taken far more seriously than those committed by a white boy a Perhaps has to do with tone of engagement iWhite boys are more sneaky while African American boys tend to be more outwardly defiant b Already stereotyped in to the quottroublemakerquot groups iVicious cycle if they are told they are bad they will act out then they will be stigmatized as bad and so on 3 If marginalized in schools being the class clown is a way to become much more masculine and get some of that attention back 3 Ritual Preformances of Masculinity Fighting 1 Another way to achieve masculinity is through displaying it in a physical manner 2 Physical scars or visible injuries can be a source of bonding a Also show a sign of masculinity that lasts 3 Being in a fight doesn39t necessarily mean that the boys aren39t friends anymore can be easily let go 4 Boys are expected to get into fights a Boys will be boys b Girls however were often thought of as individuals iOnly this specific girl is aggressive etc 5 One of the few times that emotion was seen as acceptable 6 Fighting served as a means of displaying their masculinity and as a form of a release of emotion a Female version of a release of emotion might be crying so this gave boys a more acceptable form of displaying these emotions to their peers b For boys there is more of a reward acceptance among peers no lasting impact on friendships etc c For girls there is no payout grudges frustration that lasts etc War Against Boys Schools often are set up in a way that it is seen that girls are much more likely to succeed Boys are much more likely to have ADHD Much more likely to fail Much more likely to repeat a grade Hegemonic masculinity often counteracts what is expected of them during class No child left behind You mean every child left behind Funding goes towards making sure there is a standardized education so standardized tests are passed This cuts funding from counseling remedial education afterschool programs gym etc This programs may be particularly helpful to boys FeminismAntifeminist movements Feminist agenda is causing more girls to go into STEM careers and are getting in the way of boys Boy crisis is fatherlessness Whether it be dominant mothers or absentee fathers Antifeminist arguments often blame feminists for emasculating men but rarely discuss what masculinity means to boys Try and set boys and girls up as competing forces Assuming that the educational system helps girls and hinders boys Gender stereotyping hurts both males and females Men are being asked to come share the position of nurturing their children but not necessarily take a nurturing role dea that fathers need to be in their sons39 lives but not necessarily in their daughters39 lives Mother can39t take that role Father doesn39t necessarily have to be the nurturer 39Deceptive distinctionquot when people think gender is the issue when its actually something else Gender tracking More females are taking home more bachelor s degrees Boys tend to be pushed into higher paying jobs orjobs with more prestige More men in elite colleges Females are pushed more towards English because it is more feminine Liberating because you can express your opinion What you feel involves emotion Males are pushed more towards math and science as those are more masculine subjects Don t like considering opinions One hard and fast way to do it No need to discuss emotions Boy scouts created out of the fear that boys were growing soft Fear of the feminization of boys War against boys is often used as a platform for feminist bashing Study questions What are the parallels between masculinity within adolescent boys and their education How does the antifeminist movement deflect issues and blame the feminist movement How does gender stereotyping in education hurt boys AND girls How does the quotdeceptive distinctionquot prevent us from creating solutions for boys in the educational system Parents responses to nonconformity Gender nonconformity When children do not conform to gender expectations psychologically and sociologically Parents begin gendering children as they are birthed or awaiting adoption Girls are much more celebrated if they break their gender roles while boys are more expected to stay within their expected gender roles Parents begin to worry about their daughter39s femininity closer to adolescence Mothers tend to give a bigger leeway to their sons for being more gender nonconformist Heterosexual fathers tend to blame themselves for their child39s sexuality Lesbians aren39t as stigmatized as gay males are Gay masculinity is subordinated Perhaps tied to femininity Mothers tend to be more afraid of how others might treat their son while fathers tend to be more afraid of how their sons39 sexuality will reflect on them as a parent Clear connection between hegemonic masculinity and the way he might be expected to conform to a certain ideal sexuality meaning heterosexual Added accountability for gay fathers not to make their son too feminine because they may be blamed for not having a quotrealquot male role model Parents are seeing themselves as the sole influencer in the child39s socialization Study questions Why do you think that it is more acceptable for girls to be gender nonconformist than it is for boys Why are some groups held holding themselves to a higher degree of accountability in their child39s sexuality Rethinking Adolescent Homophobia and Heterosexuality Boys sexually harass boys boys sexually harass girls Homophobic and sexist archetype of heteromasculinity Dire consequences of homophobic bullying This teasing or taunting is becoming commonplace Often used as a means of fraternity between males Heterosexuals can be victims of this as well Especially is they are more feminine This is not meant to take away from the harassment of homosexual males or homo or hetero females Often this teasing marginalizes adolescents Can lead to them acting out in a much more violent manner Boys draw laughs by imitating effeminate men or male same sex desire Homophobia often stems from being seen as gay more than it stems from a fear of gay people Gender policing Proving ones heteronormativity or masculinity Wanting to fit in to male behavior Deflect attention from themselves Effort to raise their own masculine capital Bolstering masculinity by rejectingrepudiating the quotfagquot identity Also putting down the effeminate Imposing compulsory heterosexuality Homophobia affects everyone Someone who wasn39t married or dating must be homosexual Insults quotFagquot weak unmanly a failure as 39masculine39 Rare for lesbian epithets to be unleashed by boys to denounce someone Seen as more of an arousal than anything else quotThat39s gayquot synonymous with that39s stupid quotFagquot discourse can be used to shame a boy forjust about anything Study questions What are the consequences of homophobic teasing and taunting Why do boys police boys In what ways does quotfagquot discourse quothelpquot boys ie what do they have to gain from this What does quotfagquot mean when it is leveled against a heterosexual boy
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