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This 6 page One Day of Notes was uploaded by Juliana Abrica on Tuesday September 9, 2014. The One Day of Notes belongs to a course at a university taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 82 views.
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Date Created: 09/09/14
Reasons to learn about child development 0 Improve one s own child rearing 0 Help society promote the well being of children 0 Understand human nature Early philosophers views on children39s development 0 Unlike researchers nowadays they based their conclusions on general philosophical beliefs and informal observations of a few children 0 Both Plato amp Aristotle were interested in how children39s development is in uenced by their nature amp by the nurture they receive 0 Plato believed they have innate knowledge 0 Children are born knowing 0 Aristotle believes that all knowledge comes from experience 0 An infant39s mind is a tabula rasa when they39re born blank slate Enduring themes in child development 0 Nature amp Nurture How do nature amp nurture together shape development 0 Nature refers to our biological endowment the genes we receive from our parents 0 Nurture the environment both physical amp social that in uence our development 0 All human characteristics our intellect our personality our physical appearance our emotions are created through the joint workings of nature amp nurture o Genome each person39s complete set of hereditary information in uences behavior amp experiences behavior amp experiences in uence the genome o Epigenetics the study of stable changes in gene expressions that are mediated by the environment how experience gets under the skin 0 Methylation a biochemical process that reduces expression of a variety of genes amp that is involved in regulating reactions to stress 0 The active child how do children shape their own development 0 What they pay attention to I Mothers facecan strengthen their bond 0 Language use I Practice speaking alone in a room 0 Playing I Large contribution to their knowledge of themselves amp other people 0 Child is passive 0 Gene amp environment correlation o ContinuityDiscontinuity In what ways is development continuous amp in what ways is it discontinuous 0 Continuous development the idea that changes with age occur gradually in small increments o Discontinuous development the idea that change with age include occasional large shifts 0 Stage theories approaches that propose that development involves a series of discontinuous age related phases 0 Cognitive development Jean Piaget the development of thinking amp reasoning I Sensorimotor birth 2 yrs old I Preoperational 2 7yrs old I Concrete operational 711 yrs old I Formal operational adolescence adulthood o Mechanisms of Development How does change occur 0 Effortless attention voluntary control of one s emotions amp thoughts 0 Neurotransmitters chemicals involved in communication among brain cells 0 The sociocultural context how does the sociocultural context in uence development 0 Sociocultural context the physical social cultural economic amp historical circumstances that make up any child39s environment I Historical era I Economic structure Cultural beliefs Cultural values 0 Socioeconomic status a measure of social class that is based on income amp education 0 Individual differences how do children become so different from one another 0 Genetic differences 0 Treatment by parents others I Gender I Age 0 Reactions to similar experiences 0 Choices of environment 0 frame of reference 0 baby x 0 Research amp Children39s welfare how can research promote children39s wellbeing 0 Educational innovations Evaluation Measures in Child Development Research Qualities of good measure 0 Is the measure reliable o Inter observer reliability I Different observers are in agreement 0 Test retest reliability I If you do it again amp results are similar 0 Is the measure valid 0 Does it measure what it is suppose to measure I Internal validity how well controlled is the experiment I External validity do the findings generalize beyond the specifics of the study 0 Constructs amp measures I Leaving a child in a room with cookies amp tell them not to eat it I Did they touch it or not touch it I How long could they go without eating it Contexts for gathering data 0 Interviewsquestionnaires o Self report parent or teacher report 0 Systematic observation infant39s attachment to the caregiver o Naturalistic observation 0 Structured observation Primary goal of research Determine how variables are related to one another 0 What are variables I Attributes that vary across individuals amp situations such as age sex amp popularity 0 Two types of reactions among variables I Association correlation I Cause amp effect Interpreting Correlations Correlational designs studies intended to indicate how two variables are related to one another Correlation coefficient is a number ranging from 1 to 1 It describes both the direction amp magnitude of a relation Number of siblings amp child39s sociability r17 0 Positive not really strong Child39s height amp child39s weight r86 o More linear closer to 1 Contact w mother amp child39s age r 42 o Negative inverse relation Positive correlation between playing violent video games amp aggressive behavior in children 0 Direction of causation problem You don39t know if they39re already aggressive amp chose to play video games because of that 0 Third variable problem If the child has trouble at home it can cause them to be aggressive amp play video games Positive correlation between drinking bottled water during pregnancy amp newborn health o Direction of causation problem there is none you39re pregnant first A healthy new born does not cause you to drink bottled of water 0 Third variable problem in access to health care 0 Inferences regarding cause amp effect are not warranted in either example Why not 0 Direction of causation problem 0 Third variable problem Experimental research design 0 Systematically manipulate key variables selected by investigator 0 Independent amp dependent variables 0 Equivalent groups created through random assignment equivalent in all respects except manipulated independent variable I A procedure in which each child has an equal chance of being assigned to each group within an experiment 0 If groups differ in dependent variable conclude that the manipulated IV is the cause Correlational experiments no group randomly assigned vs experimental experiments groups 0 Cross sectional designs 0 Studying children of different ages at the same time 0 Longitudinal designs 0 Following a group of children over a substantial period
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