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This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Han Truong on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1114 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Eric Lee in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory to Zoology in Biology at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
BIO 1121 ZOOLOGY 09012015 1 Review rampup report 1 Things to remember analysis vs interpretation What is the trend Why is that trend Correlation does not imply causation Wording signi cant theory model representation hypothesis Group writing carity Firgues how to talk about and refer to them 0 How to write a caption 6532 2 Quiz in 2 weeks 1015 questions INCLUDE background information scienti c paper 6532 a List the following What hypothesis will you test today Brie y describe your experimental design include your control and experimental group Multiple choices 3 Lab manual A Guide to success how to conduct a lab 17 How to write 31 Proper citation and referencing 41 B reference section C Investigations Background information Planning form Lab nees 4 Assignment Finish a3 Conduct the experiment 0 Write out a plan for completing your mini lab report and post in the dropbox 0 Write a mini lab report on the results of your experiment 0 Follow the rubric posted on D2l Due 48 hours after class Questions does warm or room temperature water cool faster Availbel supplies beakers dishpans ice microwave venire temperature prbes CHAPTER 2 the chemistry of life OUTLINE What are atoms 0 Deciphering the period table 0 Apposites attract Chemistry of relationships 0 Sharing and caring 0 Long distance 0 One sided How do elements form molecules 0 Atoms gtsmall gtlarge Atoms make up all mater 0 An element atom is basically electron neurons protons 0 Atom s mass number protons neutrons 0 Isotope same element but with different numbers of neutrons 0 Add a neutron mass goes up 0 An element 0 S atomic weight is the average mass of all isotopes of that element Electrons are always looking for mates 0 Hate being alone 0 Vacancy feeling unfulfilled hydrogen atoms 0 A chemical bond is formed when e fill their vacancy Energy shells are where E live 2 8 8 for first second and third shell The of protons determine of E The of E determine of shells Hydrogen carbon Nitrogen 7 Atoms bond With other atoms to achieve stability A FULL outer shell maX stability 0 Atoms are the most stable when their outer When Atoms share Electron as this methane molecule covalent bonds are formed Some covalent bonds called double bonds share four e between atoms Electronegativity is a measure of an atom s ability to attract electrons 0 Bottom left vs top right PT go up from left to right Greater separation on PT unequal sharing 0 Oxygen is held together 0 Polar covalent bonds 0 Polarity positive and negative ends Polarity gives rise to Hydrogen bonds 0 Slightly ENDS attract slightly negative ends 0 Water contains both C and H bonds Hydrogen bonds hold double heXi of DNA together Covalent bonds sharing and caring Hydrogen bonds What is an ion an atom that has gained or lost an electron 0 Cations 0 Anions negative 0 Table 23 Will be given on the exam UNIT 2 continues OUTLINE Water is essential for life Lovers and haters What does it mean to be acidic or basic 0 What the H What are organic Water has many unique properties water is cohesive Water can climb like a champ stick onto other surfaces adhesive Egt water s cohesive and adhesive properties allow for transpiration Example water can climb from a tree s roots to leaves Water can absorb temperature SOLID LIQUID VAPOR Water is a good solvent it can dissolve solutes salt Water dissolves hydrophilic water loving solutes Polar solutes Ions Charged or polar molecules love to swim in water it s the negative and positive molecules that interact with positive and negative of other molecules or Ions REMEMBER water does not dissolve hydrophobicwater fearing solutes Cell use fat to separate water Lastly water participates in chemical reactions Which property does not contribute to the high surface tension of water Ionic bonds What does it mean to be acidic or basic The pH scale is based on the amount of H in a solution The H concentration low pH pH change of one is 10x change in H concentration H acidic Basic solution has a low H concentration Basic have more OH ions than H ions Exam on Sep 22quot 20 days away Qurestion What are organic molecules Atoms gt Amino acids Nucleic acids lipids What dissolves in water ions and polar Organic molecules Fat Cholest carb protein Carbohydrates sugar Amino acids proteins Nucleic acids DNAARN Lipids fat MonosingIe Poly multi Mono a single unit of a carbohydrate protein or nucleic acid Monomers join to form polymers 0 Carbohydrates simple sugars o Monosaccharides the monomers of carbohydrates 0 Polysaccharide chain of monomers Are essentially stored energy Three forms of stored energy collusion starch glycogen Proteins are formed for function have more variable structures and functions than any of the other organic molecules Amino Acids are the building blocks All fundamentally similar The quotR quotgives it peRsonal R group of amino acids is variable 0 Left side Hydrogen spare Right side need a hydrogen please 0 Top lam glycine gt the left has what the right needs cgt amino acid reacts with amino acids is called dehydration synthesis and peptide bonds cgt Dehydration synthesis lose water to join An enzyme binds two monomers releasing a water molecule Creates bones gt Hydrolysis add water to cut 0 reverse reaction of dehydration synthesis it breaks polymers into monomers Breaks apart the bonds You have a protein composed of 30 amino acids It will take 29 hydrolysis reaction to break it up into in 30 individual amino acids You have a 30 monosaccharides In order to build a polysaccharide composed of 30 monosaccharides It will take 29 dehydration synthesis reactions Protein 0 The four level or structure O O O 0 Primary structure amino acid sequence of polypeptide Secondary structure localized areas of coils sheets and loops within Tertiary structure overall shape of one polypeptide Quaternary structure overall protein shape arising from interaction 0 The function of a protein depends on its shape hydrogen bonds to hold it toghether O O Normalheated denatured Proteins protons denatured Nucleic acids DNAgtPROTEIN DNA is also a chain of single units DNA and RNA ACG DNA only T RNA only U How do we make nucleic acid polymers aka DNARNA hydrogen synthese Liquids Fats Long chains of Carbon 0 Triglyceride no monomers and polymers considered as one unit 0 Saturated fats are bad for you has maximize hydrogen such as butter with single bonds 0 Unsaturated double bonds and good for you such as oil Trans fats are synthetically made to be straight Solid at room temperature food lasts longer How do you link glycerol strings of fat It s all about Sterols lipid molecules Lipophilic Cell the basic unit of life A cell is the smallest Atomsgtmoeculesgtproteinsgt cells The anatomy of an animal cell The membrane is composed of organic molecules 0 Double layered AKA phospholipid bilayer 0 Has both hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions 0 Has stuff embedded in it o Fluid and dynamic AKA uid mosaic l clicker QUESTION involve in dehydration synthesis reactions DNARNA POLYSACCHARIDES proteins triglyceride W909 IUINoom F3 H4 Organic molecule Nucleic acid protein monosaccharide Monomer amino acid nucleotide monosaccharide Example Monomer glycine adenine glucose Polymer polypeptide nucleic acid polysaccharide Example of polymer insulin DNA glycogen ENERGY 0 Potential vs kinetic o How high is your metabolism 0 ATP energy Enzymes Homeostasis Negative and positive feedback Potential energy chemical energy stored in bonds 0 Concentration gradient Across a membrane Kinetic light 0 Sound 0 Movement of atoms and molecules 0 Muscle concentration Energy transformations are inef cient Energy is always lost as heat 0 Sunlight is kinetic energy 0 Sugar is potential energy Metabolism chemical reactions 0 Endergonic energy in 0 Exergonic out LOOK AT GRAPH ON THE BOOK Powerhouse of cell Mitochondria s job 0 ADP P gt ATP THE energy is stored in the PP bonds Adenosine tri Potential energy is in the P ATP HIGH energy O 0000 0 When you break PP bond you release energy Eat foodgt transfer energy gt ATP ATP FORMATION is coupled with other exergonic reactions The cell uses energy from reactios that release to produce ATP ATP breakdown is coupled with other endergonic reactions The cell uses energy stored in ATP to power reactions How we spend our ATPs ATP energizes target molecule making it more likely to bond with other molecules ATP can energize other molecules ATP donates a phosphate group that changes the shape of the target molecules ENZYME CONTROL THE RATE OF CHEMICAL REACTION Enzyme are proteins 0 reusable protein that speeds up chemical reaction substrate 0 active site o Enzymes lower activation energy 0 Activation energy the energy required to start a reaction Other factors affect enzyme activity Most enzymes have optimal temperature and pH levels 0 The mystery 7 deaths 0 12 year old woke up with the cold and given her extra strength Tylenol Adam had heart attack got into the IR died in 1hour after that 2 of brothers sisters took Tylenol for their stress they too died a few hours later 0 Symptoms dizziness Headache shortness of breath and rapid breathing vomiting Symptoms All seven victims exhibited cold like symptoms Included dizziness confusion headache shortness of breathrapid breathing and vomiting Similarities All of them took Tylenol shortly before their death Lived in the same neighborhood All death occurred within a ve day timeframe Show similar symptoms and had rapid breaths within hours Questions to ask family 0 Did any of the victims have any medical condition diagnosed in the past 0 Did they take other medication before they died 0 Where was the Tylenol purchased 0 What food did they eat prior to their deaths Autopsy report 0 Died from hypoxia lack of oxygen Tissue in heart lung kidney and liver show massive cell deaths Staining showed mitochondrial damage Oxygen levels in blood was high Metabolite analysis 0 The glucose and pyruvate were normal 0 NAD was below normal and NADH was way higher than normal Glucose was broken down in cellular respiration to make ATP It is substrate Pyruvate is the product of glucose being broken down It is a product 0 NAD is an electron acceptor during cellular respiration It is substrate NADH is used for ATP production as an electron carrier and helps create the proton gradient needed for the ETC Questions 0 The function of the cell that was interrupted was cellular respiration more speci cally the electron transport chain 0 The oxygen levels in their blood was high which con ict with the cause of death was hypoxia or lack of oxygen 0 Chapter 45 and 6 HOW CELL RELEASE ENERGY Structure of the cell membrane Concentration gradient potential energy How do largechargepolar molecules cross the cell membrane Diffusion 0 Active vs passive transport Why are you breathing right now 0 Cellular respiration Glycolysisgt Krebs cycegt Electron transport chain Absence of oxygen CHAPTER 4 Endomembrane system 0 Nuclear envelop endoplasmic reticulum gogi apparatus ysosomes peroxisomes vacuoles cell membrane etc Transport proteins act like tunnels or gates 0 Transport proteins Enzymes 0 Recognition proteins 0 Adhesion proteins 0 Receptor proteins What can pass or not pass 0 Factor that naturally affect permeability of solutes can pass 0 Polarity 0 Charge 0 Size Concentration gradientspotential energy 0 From high concentration to low concentration solutes travel down 0 Equal distribution of solutes no concentration gradient 0 Passive transport requires gradients 0 Passive transport simple diffustion and facilitated diffusion osmosis Active transport does not require ATP 0 Passive does not require energy 0 Moves down o in simple diffusion particles move down their gradient high to low concentration 0 Osmosis diffustion of H20 molecules always go down from less to more lso quotsamequot 9 grams of salt in 1 liter of solution 0 Hypo lower pure water 0 Hyperquothigherquot 18 grams of salt in Tonicity concentration of solutes o Facilitated diffusion simple diffusion of impermeable solutes Moves across memberane with assistance of transport proteins IONS Polar large require proteins transport 0 0 Active transport requires energy Goes against concentration gradients It can create a concentration gradient ATPgt potential energy Example sodiumpotassium pump requires ATP n MOVE FROM MORE TO LESS 0 Bulk transport Cell eating endocytosis endo means IN Cell discharge exocytosis MEMBRANE transport summary 0 Photos in the phone CHAPTER 6 hOW cell release energy Cell use energy in food to make ATP 0 AEROBIC RESPIRATION GLUCOSE 02 gt ATP CELLULAR Respiration is linked to breathing Eukaryotic cells cooperate with mitochondria Cell respiration in a nutshell 0 GOO COD 0 We eat food breath in oxygen Breakdown polymers into say glucose Feed glucose 02 to cells Cells split glucose into 2x pyruvates Make some ATP in the process Feed pyruvates 02 to mitochondria Mitochondria transfers energy from pyruvate to NAD and FAD NADH and FADH deliver energy to the electron transport chain ETC ETC makes lots of ATP requires oxygen NAD and FAD are transporters do not carry electron NADH is used for ATP production as an electron carrier and helps create the proton gradient needed for the ETC NADH FADH2 are loaded carry electron Cellular occurs in 4 stages Glucose O2gt H20 C02 ATP 0 Glycol ysis Glyco lysis Glucose breaks What s going out Net input 2 NAD AND 2ADP 2P p109 Understand that enzymes are doing all the work enzymes do the conversations enzymes are proteins NAD is limited Glycolysis yields ATPs without 02 Anaerobic respiration Transition step Krebs cycle Electron transport chain 0 Enzymes are doing all the work Original pyruvate gtO2 losing it It is a cycle Lots of NADFAD are energized Electron transport chain NADH a Protein 1gtp2gtp3gtp4 a FADH 2 gt3gt4 a 02 is the nal electron acceptor a gt Aerobic respiration Going against the gradient requires energy active transport 0 Matrix is the area having less gradients o lntermembrance area having more gradients Energized proteins pump H against the concentration gradient Chemiosmosis phosphorylation harnessing the power of chemical gradient to produce ATP Kreb s take place at mitochondrial matrix tahe
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