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Chapter 4 Notes

by: Ethan Bennion

Chapter 4 Notes Psy 100-820

Ethan Bennion
SUNY Oswego
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Mark Mirabito

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Hey everyone, I am back with another set of notes. These are the chapter 4 notes you all need in an organized format. Study up!
Introduction to Psychology
Dr. Mark Mirabito
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ethan Bennion on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psy 100-820 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Dr. Mark Mirabito in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at State University of New York at Oswego.

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Date Created: 09/20/15
Psychology 100 Chapter 4 Consciousness The Nature of Consciousness NOT well understood 1 Definition Your awareness of yourself and your surroundings 2 Study focuses on a Sleep b Altered waking states c Psychoactive drugs Sleep 1 Circadian Rhythm Biological clock a In free run b 25 hours long and is adjustable 2 hours 2 Adjustment To new time zone a Light Eye Hypothalamus Pineal Gland secretes melatonin MORE at night for drowsiness Stages of Sleep NREM Stages REM Stages NRl half asleep Alpha Waves REM Dreaming NR2 lose posture incoherent theta waves Sleep and sleep spindles burst of high frequency paradoxical sleep k complex burst of high amplitude Needed for NR3 Least active stage Mind Active Parasommas walking talking eating Paralyzed Basic Metabolic Rate Needed For Physical rest memory consolidation Dreams 1 Occurs in REM sleep 2 Semi logicalsemi illogical themes 3 Everyone dreams 4 Most people have some lucid dreams Dream Theories 1 F reudian VeoF reudian a Freud All dreams are wish ful llment disguised in dreams i Manifest Content Story seen by dreamer ii Latent Content True meaning b NeoFreudian Modern Psychodynamic Dreams are attempts to deal with i Wishes ii Fears iii Guilt iV Other emotions 2 The Activation Synthesis Theory AKA the Hobson McCarley Theory a Dreams mean nothing They are random bursts of electricity when they reach the cortex our brain tries to make a story out of them 3 The Working Theories of Dreaming a Dreams help us i Eliminate unnecessary memories ii Reinforces important memories iii Think about thingsproblems Sleep Disorders 1 Insomnia 2 types a b Onset Insomnia can t fall asleep when you first go to bed Maintenance Insomnia Wake up frequently andor toss and turn While half asleep andor wake up way too early 2 Risk Factors a D qorhsDPPP i 3 What a Wop99 g Age 60 lower melatonin Genetics Gender Female Stress anxiety and depression Inconsistent sleep schedule Caffeine less than 5 hours before bed Alcohol less than 6 hours before bed Sedentary lifestyle Over energized brain especially in children to do Reduce stress Consistent sleep schedule Regular exercise Meditation Don t live in bed Avoid caffeine and alcohol 6 hours before bed Meds Last resort Meditation hypnosis and other Trancelike States 1 What are they a b Changes in the activity of certain parts of the brain amygdala cortex Probably involves increases in GABA andor endorphins i Initiated by hypnotists or mantras repeated word or sound that triggers trance 2 Changes a b Perception Changes in memory c Behavior d Allows some people to exert voluntary control over normally involuntary processes i Heart rate ii Blood pressure iii AnxietyDepression Psychoactive Drugs 1 Affects mood andor behavior andor perception Stimulants any drug that increases energy in the brain usually by increasing dopamine 1 General effect a energy alert confident eXhileration 2 Addictive yes Depressants Drugs that decrease energy in the brain usually by increasing GABA or endorphins l 3 main categories a Minor Tranquilizers anti anxiety sleeping pills b Narcotics opium based painkillers c Barbiturates older depressants now mostly used for anesthesia Hallucinogens Drugs that l Alter perception andor 2 Create a euphoric effect


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