Week 2 Biology 207 Lecture Notes
Week 2 Biology 207 Lecture Notes 207/41320
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by email@example.com Notetaker on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 207/41320 at University of St. Thomas taught by Lewis in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 14 views.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Biology Week 2 Lecture Notes The Cell Cycle M deoxyribose nucleic acid double stranded 1920 s proved DNA was hereditary material Watson and Crick get credit Rocelyn Franklin actually discovered structure DNA influences behavior prejudices intelligence DNA contains the information for proteins and regulatory genes in the body 46 strands of DNA in each cell chromosomes 2 sets of 23 packaged so it doesn t tangle and any cell can open it to function Levels of Packaging Level 1 double helix 2 wrap around protein cluster called histones protein to organize DNA 3 histone clusters 8 become nucleosomes quotbeads on a string 4 nucleosomes packaged into chromosomes composed of chromatids Cell Cycle nterphase active time for cells 61 stage where cells grow 5 DNA Synthesis make another copy of the cell duplicate 62 more growth depending upon how much is still needed M mitotic phase cell division Mitosis and cytokinesis W cells copying themselves Meiosis cell sex making something new that never existed before and won t ever again Sexual production is risky but sex is necessary because environments change and sometimes mom may have a genetic defect Asexual is less risky and faster but only happens in environments with little change Mitosis Prophase condense Metaphase microtubules push chromosomes into middle Anaphase centromeres split and microtubules and spindles push chromatids apart Teophase nuclear envelope forms and cell is cleaved into two not for diploids only cell can be haploid Nuclear envelope disappears during prophase Mitotic spindle pulls chromosomes apart Centrioles place that controls microtubule spindle Centromere does not carry genetic material place for mitotic spindle to attach Cytokinesis cell movement occurs during telophase Chromosome any DNA condensed all chromosomes are not chromatids Chromatids the singular pieces more specific phrase Sister chromatids joined by centromere identical come from same chromosome of chromosomes count centromeres of chromatids worm shaped pieces metaphase 2x of chromatids v chromosomes diploid throughout entire mitosis process refers to how many sets we have for 1 given trait Meiosis 1 diploid to haploid Prophase I crossing over occurs Autosomes all chromosomes BUT sex chromosome Life Phases Fertilization haploid to diploid Meiosis I diploid to haploid Diploid dominant animals Alternation of generations plants Haploid dominant fungi Meiosis Interphase homologous pairs duplicate Meiosis prophase exchange parts sex Metaphase line up in middle cuddle splits homologous pairs Anaphase separate go to work haploid Telophase cells cleave Meiosis split sister chromatids 4 haploid cells result contain unduplicated chromosomes go from 2 chromatids to 1 functionallyjust mitosis just not exact copies pro pair up don t exchange anything meta line up in center anasth telo cleaves into 4 haploid cells Independent Assortment separate chromosomes Linked same chromosome Mitosis gives identical daughter cells no change over time Meiosis variation in 2 ways 1 Independent assortment 2 Crossing over
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