Governing Texas Ch 1
Governing Texas Ch 1 GOVT 2306.003
Popular in State and Local Government
Popular in Political Science
POLS 1101 096
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Natalie Notetaker on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GOVT 2306.003 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Brian Bearry in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 444 views. For similar materials see State and Local Government in Political Science at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Business Dominance 0 a third continuing pattern that has helped de ne Texas s political culture 0 business groups are major players in terms of of campaign contributions organized interest groups and lobbyists 0 the changes shook TX government and politics in the 1990 s and have continued to shape them in the second decade of the 21st century The Land 0 much of TX s history and political life has been shaped by the relationship forged between its people and the land 0 to understand dynamics of political life and governance in TX it demands an appreciation of the vast spaces and topography that de ne the state 0 TX is the 2nd largest next to Alaska 0 distances alone don t tell the whole story of the diverse geography found in TX I 4 distinct physical regions with features that have shaped politics in TX in a number of important ways 0 Gulf Coastal Plains O extend from the Louisiana border and the Gulf of Mexico along the Rio Grande up to Del Rio and northward to the line of the Balcones Fault and Escapement I move westward and the climate becomes increasingly arid O eastern portion called east TX is characterized by hilly surfaces covered by forests of pine and hardwoods I home of some of TX s most famous oilfields 0 western portion is the Blackland Belt where a rolling prairie soil made it a prime farming area during the late 19th and early 20th centuries I major center of cotton production I most densely populated area and has a diversified manufacturing base 0 TX s political life grew out of the Gulf Coastal Plains I available to Americans willing to come to TX in the first half of the 19th century I was the foundation of plantation life during the antebellum period when slavery ourished in the state I a union movement grew out of the industrialized areas along the coast providing support to a liberal wing of the Democratic Party I the Plains were dominated by rural conservative values be located in the D Party from 1876 to early 1990 s or in the R Party from the 1990 s to today 0 urban areas have become increasingly Democratic while suburban areas have become more Republican 0 Interior Lowlands 0 an extension of the interior lowlands that run down from Canada bordered by Balcones Escarpment on the east and south and Caprock Escarpment on the west 0 the eastern edge of the Interior Lowlands has predominantly an agricultural economy and a rural population 0 the western portion rises from 750 to 2000 feet in elevation I West Texas Rolling Plains contain much level cultivable land and home to a large cattleraising industry 0 dominated by conservative politics and the R Party 0 Great Plains 0 de ne the terrain in much of western Texas rising from 2700 feet in the east to more than 4000 feet along the New Mexico border 0 southern plains economy centers on agriculture and cotton production with Lubbock as the major city Amarillo in northern plains ranching and petroleum production dominate the economy 0 a major concern of policymakers is that pumping out of the aquifer exceeds replenishment raising questions of the viability of basing future growth on the irrigation practices of the past 0 conservative political values have a home in the Interior Lowlands and the Great Plains as in East Texas I their power has been ebbing in the face of population pressures of Texas s expanding urban areas elsewhere 0 Basin and Range Province 0 the area running from the Basin and Range Province to the Lower Rio Grande has always had a distinctive political culture heavily dominated by the fact that Texas and Mexico have been joined at the hip economically and demographically I the Border region including El Paso McAllen and Brownsville has remained a D Party bastion Economic Change in Texas 0 Joseph Schumpeter characterized the capitalist economic system as being a process of creative destruction 0 meaning that capitalism was an economic system that underwent periodic waves of transformation fueled by technological innovations in productions and distributions 0 waves of technological transformation were put into place by entrepreneurs who came up with new ways to produce and distribute goods and services and who were willing to act 0 the capitalist process of creative destruction destroys the old economic and social worlds and local markets that had defined rural American communities since the Founding 0 Schumpeter s theory of creative destruction provides a useful way to think about the economic changes that have shaped and reshaped the TX economy 0 4 great waves helped de ne and redefine the TX political economy over the last 150 years I Cotton 0 one of the oldest crops grown in Texas 0 serious cultivation of cotton began in 1821 with the arrival of white Americans 0 by mid19th century cotton production placed TX eighth among the top cottonproducing states in the Union 0 by 1880 TX led all states in the production of cotton 0 a number of technological breakthroughs further stimulated the cotton industry in TX 0 in the 1870s barbed wire was introduced enabling farmers to cordon off their lands and protect their cash crop from grazing cattle 0 building of railroads brought TX farmers into a national market 0 a newly designed plow made it easier to dig up prairie soil and signi cantly increase farm productivity 0 throughout the 1870s immigrants from Deep South and Europe ooded the prairies of TX to farm cotton 0 most became tenant farmers or sharecroppers and tenants lived on farms owned by landowners providing their own animals tools and seed 0 sharecroppers fumished their labor but received only onehalf of the value of the final product 0 2 important consequences resulted from the tenant and sharecropping system 0 first condemned many rural Texas to lives of social and economic dependency I croplien system was developed to extend credit to farmers in exchange for liens on their crops 0 was to trap farmers in a debt cycle 0 second the tenant and sharecropping system helped fuel radical political discontent in rural areas sparking both the Grange and Populist movements I the movements played a major role in de ning the style of Texas politics throughout much of the late 19th and early 20th centuries 0 cotton production cycled up and down as farmers experienced a series of crises and opportunities during the late 19th and early 20th centuries ranging from destructive boll weevils to an increased demand brought on by WW1 to a collapse in prices following the war 0 61 of all farmers were tenant farmers 13 were sharecroppers O by 1987 only 12 were tenants I Cattle o the origins of ranching and the cattle industry extend back to the late 17th century when the Spanish brought livestock to the region to feed their missionaries soldiers and civilians O offered immigrants an attractive alternative to farming during the periods of Mexican and Republic of Texas rule 0 following the Civil War the cattle industry expanded throughout the state 0 ranch lands had been transformed from open range to fenced pasturing by the end of 19th century 0 cattle raising became a more specialized and efficient business periodic con icts broke out between employers and employees 0 ranching and cotton production remain important industries although increasingly dominated by big agribusiness companies 0 neither cotton productions nor ranching drives the Texas political economy as in the past 0 less than 2 of the population lives on farms and ranches 0 a new set of technological breakthroughs challenged the 19th century dominance of cotton and cattle in the early 20th century 0 focused on what lay beneath the land I Oil Industry 0 first sighted in the mid17th century by Spanish explorers 0 no market or demand for the product and nothing was done to develop the natural resource 0 the first economically significant oil discovery in Texas was in 1894 in Navarro County near Corsicana I by 1898 the state s first oil re nery was operating at the site 0 Texas was catapulted into the era of oil and gas by the discovery at Spindletop on January 10 1901 Texas s first oil boom 0 it encouraged large numbers of speculators and entrepreneurs to try their luck in the new business 0 the oil and gas industry transformed the social and economic fabric of Texas in a number of important ways 0 by providing cheap oil and gas the industry made possible a new industrial revolution in 20th century America that was fueled by hydrocarbons I cheap oil provided a new fuel for transportation and manufacturing I railroads and steamships were able to convert from coal to oil I manufacturing plants and farms were able to operate more ef ciently with a new cheap source of energy encouraging individuals to migrate to cities away from farms the oil and gas industry also sparked a rapid industrialization of the Gulf Coast region 0 the refineries pipelines and export facilities laid the foundations for the largescale industrialization that would take place along the Gulf Coast in the HoustonBeaumontPort Arthur region I 27 of all manufacturing employees worked in refineries I the petrochemical industry continued to ourish throughout the 1960s when demand for its products grew at the rate of 10 a year one important effect of the oil and gas boom in TX was the development of a new rhythm to economic life in the state 0 prices of products could rise and fall bringing prosperity or gloom to local economies but there was a bond between the land and the people and the communities that formed around them 0 the irony of the oil and gas business was that a major discovery that brought large amounts of new oil and gas to market could lead to a sudden collapse in prices I could quickly turn into local depressions and boom towns could quickly become ghost towns the oil and gas industry also transformed government and the role that it played in the economy 0 after the Civil War a series of attempts to regulate the railroads had largely failed 0 in 1890 a constitutional amendment was passed to create an agency to regulate the railroads the Texas Railroad Commission I the Railroad Commission was empowered to see that petroleum pipelines were common carriers that they transported all producers oil and gas and to promote wellspacing rules I to bring stability to uctuations in world oil prices the commission won the authority to prorate oil and determine how much every oil well in TX might produce I the Texas Railroad Commission was one of the most important regulatory bodies in the nation and one of the few democratically elected regulatory agencies helping to expand the power of state government in the economy through the Railroad Commission was only one effect of the oil and gas industry but also had an important fiscal effect on state government 0 beginning in 1905 the state collected oil production taxes from 101403 in 1906 to over 1 million in 1919 O the numbers represented a sharp turnaround from the previous two decades when oil and natural gas revenues had sharply fallen many thought Texas was a worthless land but it had been set aside by the state constitution of 1876 and the state legislature in 1883 to support higher education the Permanent University Fund 0 oil was discovered in West Texas Permian Basin in 1923 on university land 0 in 1931 the income of the Permanent University Fund was split between the university of Texas at Austin and Texas AampM University with the former receiving 23 and the latter 13 O in December 2012 the market value of the PUF was calculated to be 15881 billion 0 fortunes were made in the industry and those fortunes paved the way for an expansion of private philanthropy that would have a major in uence in shaping Texas s culture 0 Meadows Foundations established in 1948 to promote programs in health education visual arts social services and historical preservation 0 Sid W Richardson Foundation was founded in 1947 and supported health and education programs as well as the development of the arts in Fort Worth I Bass Performance Hall was funded by the Bass brothers grandnephews of the independent oilman Sid Richardson 0 oil productions in Texas seemed to peak in 1972 and there were decades of decline in the state s production 0 new technologies led to a new boom era of oil and gas productions beginning in 2008 and carrying through until today 0 the result of the new oil boom is that oil and gas are emerging again as a mainstay of the Texas economy although it s an economy that is far more diversified than in an earlier era 0 new industries and technologies have come to assume significant roles in plotting the state s economic future I HighTech Digital Economy 0 the movement out of the era of oil and gas and into that of high tech wasn t easy 0 world oil prices began to collapse in 1982 at 10 per barrel 0 real estate deals fell construction projects slowed and shut down banks failing 0 Texas emerged from the economic malaise of the 1980s with a transformed state economy 0 oil and gas business was no longer the primary driving force 0 in the 1990s unlike in early periods of speculative booms the economy s growth was grounded in a rapidly diversifying economy 0 in 1990s Texas went from 7th in nation in total manufacturing employment to 2nd 0 by 2013 15 of the state s gross domestic product came from manufacturing 0 two metropolitan areas stand out as national centers for the rapidly evolving hightech industry 0 AustinSan Marcos metropolitan area is home of the computer giant Dell and has become a production center for computer chips personal computers and related computer hardware with such companies as Flextronics Apple Oracle and IBM 0 Dallas metropolitan area particularly north is home of a number of important electronic and electronic equipment companies including Texas Instruments 0 Texas was the leading tech export state with 451 billion in exports in 2012 up 73 from 2011 NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement 0 one defining feature of the Texas economy in the 1990s and 2000s was the NAFTA O NAFTA trade treaty among the US Canada and Mexico to lower and eliminate tariffs among the three countries O signed on December 17 1992 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney of Canada President Carlos Salinas de Gortari of Mexico and President George H W Bush of the US NAFTA sought to create a freetrade zone in North America I an important milestone in the agreement was reached on October 19 2001 when Mexican trucks were nally allowed to cross over into the US with goods for US markets I despite NAFTA provisions the trucks had been banned in the US for almost 20 years because of strong labor union opposition and concerns over safety 0 NAFTA wasn t the only cause to the diversi cation of the Texas economy since the 1980s but it has accelerated that diversi cation O NAFTA has clearly had an impact in stimulating trade and transport across the state and stimulating the production of j obs 0 Texas was one of the last states to enter the Great Recession and was one of the first to exit 0 from late 2008 through 2009 427600 jobs were lost in Texas to the Great Recession I by the summer of 2014 jobs numbers were only beginning to approach preGreat Recession levels I unemployment rates began falling in early 2011 and continued for the next 2 years 0 many Texas politicians sought to take credit for Texas s performance during and after the Great Recession 0 low taxes low services probusiness and free market government an entrepreneurial spirit all given credit for the Texas economic miracle I the housing market declined much less severely and most of Texas didn t experience the surge in real estate values found in other states like California Nevada Florida and Arizona I Article 16 of Texas Constitution forbids consumers from using homeequity loans for credit that exceeds 80 of the mortgage 0 two most import factors may have helped Texas escape the worst of the Great Recession 0 an increasingly diversi ed economy lubricated by international trade and a resurgent oil and gas industry The People of Texas 0 three factors account for the population growth in Texas 0 natural increase as a result of difference between births and deaths 0 international immigration particularly from Mexico 0 domestic immigration from other states 0 in 1991 almost 23 of population growth was accounted for by natural increases 0 by 2013 natural increases accounted for only 54 of population growth while international immigration accounted for about 168 and domestic immigration for about 297 0 Texas was being rede ned not by nativebom Texans but by individuals coming to Texas to share in and contribute to the state s diversi ed economy Whites o the dominant ethnic group O comprise a wide range of European ethnic groups including English Germans Scots lrish Czechs and European Jews 0 impresario an individual who promotes organizes or helps to finance a particular endeavor I Moses Austin and his son Stephen F Austin authorized by Spanish and later Mexican leaders to bring people to Texas the newcomers sought in expensive land but brought a new set of individualistic attitudes and values about democratic government I sought cheap land but brought new cultural baggage slavery I most Texas farmers didn t own slaves but vast majority supported the institution and secession from the Union 0 defeat in Civil War shattered the dominance of traditional white power structure in the state 0 after Reconstruction it had reasserted itself establishing 3 patterns that de ned Texas politics for the next 100 years I oneparty Democratic state I provincialism I business dominance O whites living in Texas at the end of the 20th century weren t cut from the same cloth as those who had preceded them I a new wave of white immigration into Texas rede ned political culture of white Texans I no one can assume white Texans live on farms hold conservative values and tied to Democratic Party I one may be an urbanite or suburbanite not born in Texas and vote Republican Latinos 0 terms Hispanic and Latino often used interchangeably to refer to people of Spanish descent or people from Latin America 0 most Latinos are Mexican descents O in early 19th century 5000 Mexican descents lived in Texas by 1850 it was estimated that 14000 Texas were of Mexican origin 0 until 1990 Latinos were concentrated in south Texas constituting a majority along the border with Mexico 0 labor segregation limited opportunities available to many Latinos before WWII 0 after WWII many Latinos left agricultural work and took jobs in the rapidly growing urban areas of Texas 0 political status of Latinos in Texas changed considerably over the past 100 years 0 in 19th century numerous obstacles limited their participation in political life of the state I voting was discouraged or tightly controlled I whiteonly primary and poll tax discouraged voting by Latinos 0 poll tax a stateimposed tax on voters as a prerequisite for voting were rendered unconstitutional in national elections by the 24th Amendment and in state elections by the Supreme Court in 1966 O a more tolerant atmosphere in the growing urban areas enabled Latino politicians to assume positions of importance in local political community 0 in 1956 Henry B Gonzalez became the 1st Mexican American to be elected to Texas Senate in modern times I mid1960s a political movement emerged in La Raza Unida Party which sought to confront many discriminatory practices that isolated Texas Latinos from political and economic mainstream African Americans 0 among the earliest explorers of Texas 0 most entered as slaves O at first antislavery attitudes among Spanish and Mexican authorities kept slave population down but independence from Mexico lifted the restrictions on slavery o emancipation for African Americans living in Texas came on June 19 1865 but didn t bring anything approaching equality O a series of Black Codes were passed by the state legislature and various cities that sought to restrict the rights of former slaves O 10 African American delegates helped write the Texas Constitution of 1869 and 43 served as members of the state legislature between 1868 and 1900 O Reconstruction s end and return to power of Democratic Party in the mid1870s reversed much of progress made by former slaves O in 1923 the legislature explicitly banned blacks from voting 0 federal court cases in 1940s and 50s offered some hope of relief to African American living in Texas 0 Smith v Allwright 1944 outlawed the white primary 0 Sweatt v Painter 1950 guaranteed African Americans admission to Texas s graduate and professional schools 0 Brown v Board of Education 1954 outlawed the segregation of public schools 0 Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965 helped open up the political system in Texas to African Americans Asians 0 considerably smaller than other groups but has grown in Texas in recent years 0 tend to be concentrated in certain urban areas particularly in West Houston and Fort Bend County western and northern suburbs of Dallas Arlington and Travis County Age 0 compared to the rest of the nation the population is relatively young 0 in 2012 268 of population were estimated to be under 18 years old compared with 235 nationally Poverty and Wealth 0 younger populations tend to be poorer as income and poverty statistics bear out 0 percentage of population in Texas living below the poverty level a level established by the federal government fell from 157 to 149 between 1990 and 2004 rose to 179 in 2012 0 during the same period the national poverty rate fell from 135 to 117 and rose to 159 in 2012 Urbanization 0 urbanization the process by which people move from rural areas to cities 0 suburbanization is the process by which people move out of central city areas to surrounding suburban areas 0 by first decade of 21st century 85 of population reside in urban areas 0 most Texas cities are the result of American settlement and culture 0 Spanish in uence on urban life grew out of efforts to extend territorial control northward out of Mexico through a series of presidios garrisons missions churches and pueblos towns O missions were established to convert local Native Americans to Christianity and farms were cultivated to feed the local population 0 white American in uence began with arrival of Moses Austin in 1820 in San Antonio and soon his son followed 0 the Spanish offered the Austins and other impresarios grants of land to encourage the in ow of Americans into underpopulated regions of Texas 0 Americans brought with them a host of new interests and ideas that would transform urban life in Texas including a new language slavery Protestantism and a commitment to free enterprise and democracy 0 urbanization transformed Texas political life 0 Texas s political life grew out of its ruralbased economy based on cotton cattle oil and natural gas 0 urbanization and accompanying suburbanization are driving politics in the state 0 dredging technologies helped to stimulate the growth of port cities such as Houston Galveston Corpus Christi and Brownsville O railroad construction in the second half of 19th century opened up new lands to urban development 0 technological breakthroughs in transportation such as cars and air travel would reinforce the population grid laid out by the railroads The Urban Political Economy 0 understanding the complexity of the government and politics demands having some sense of how Texas s three major metropolitan areas compare with each other Immigration in Texas 0 an important part of Texas culture 0 prior to 1836 most of Texas was part of Mexico and many people were of Mexican descent 0 after the 911 the USMexico border tightened considerably and border crossings become more difficult o in 2014 campaign for lieutenant governor Houston state senator Dan Patrick campaigned against incumbent David Dewhurst by running on a platform of stopping the illegal invasion of immigrants into Texas 0 Patrick emphasized that federal government wasn t enforcing border security by allowing immigrants into Texas and claimed that lack of security brought third world diseases into the state 0 Dewhurst increased funds for border security but couldn t overcome the strong Tea Party in uence in the Republican primary and was trounced by Patrick on May 27 2014 0 Patrick gained headlines by debating San Antonio mayor Julian Castro about immigration reform I Castro accused Patrick of dog whistle politics appealing to exclusionist and racist rhetoric in order to win the election and argued that there isn t invasion of immigrants I Castro argued that those in the country illegally should be allowed a path of citizenship but Patrick disagreed and claimed that those in the country illegally should go to the back of the line and wait their turns 0 granting citizenship to illegal immigrants would encourage more illegal immigration 0 amnesty the notion of allowing illegal immigrants the opportunity to eventually become US citizens 0 the debate in Texas mirrors the national debate regarding how best to deal with immigration 0 approximately 11 million undocumented or illegal immigrants in the US and about 2 million in Texas 0 in 2014 there was a significant increase in illegal immigration by children entering the US without parents 0 people claim Patrick will turn off the growing Latino population because the harsh antiimmigrant rhetoric was perceived as antiLatino however he claimed that he supports legal immigration and wants to stop illegal immigration 0 immigrants will find a way to make to the US despite expensive border security efforts Houston
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