Chemistry of Life Week 3
Chemistry of Life Week 3 CHEM 120 - 04
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CHEM 120 - 04
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Weller on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 120 - 04 at Radford University taught by Lissa F Huston in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Chemistry of Life in Chemistry at Radford University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Chemistry of Life Week 3 Notes Chapter 4 Atoms The Periodic Table 1872 organized the 60 known elements in order of increasing mass The modern periodic table is organized by increasing atomic number elements with similar chemical and physical properties are grouped together Horizontal row on a periodic table Vertical column on periodic table known as groups share similar properties 0 00000 There are 18 groups on the periodic table Red Alkali Metals Orange Alkaline Earth metals White Transition metals Green Carbon Family Light blue Nitrogen family Medium blue oxygen family Purpe Halogens Pink Noble gases 113 UFE Characteristics of Elements mod conductors shiny malleable docile 5 Poor conductors can be solids liquids gases brittle not shiny low melting points properties intermediate to both so they are semi conductors The Atom the smallest particle of an element that retains the characteristics of that element 500 BC came up with the idea of atoms atomos 1808 developed atomic theory that was the basis for the modern atomic theory Daltons Atomic Theory 1Al matter is made up of tiny particles called atoms 2All atoms of given elements are similar to one another and different from atoms of others 3Atoms of 2 or more combine to form compounds particuar compounds the same atoms and the same number of each atom 4A chemical reaction involves rearrangement separation or combination of atoms Atoms are neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction Subatomic Particles Atoms are composed of smaller bits of matter called subatomic particles proton neutron electrons discovered electrons negatively charged subatomic particles Eectrons are smaller than the atom and the smallest out of protons and neutrons Protons were then discovered to be positively charged subatomic particles that are about 2000 times heavier than the electron Created the plum puddingquot model of the atom INSERT PIC HERE 1911 discovered the nucleus through the goldfoil experiment Small dense positively charged region at the center of the atom Structure of the Atom The nucleus was heavier than the mass of the protons so there was another subatomic particle James Chadiwick 1932 discovered the neutron Neutron neutral subatomic particles in center nucleus l protons amp neutrons Electrons take up most of the volume of the atom Eectrons around outside the nucleus whereas protons and neutrons are in the nucleus Masses of subatomic particles are so small chemists developed the atomic mass unit Amu amuonetwelvth the mass of a carbon atom with 6 protons and 6 neutrons Aso known as Dalton Da Symbol Charge Mass amu Location Proton p or p 1 1007 Nucleus Neutron n or nquoto 0 1008 Nucleus Electron e 1 100055 Outside nucleus Atomic number Z number of protons in an atom also the of electrons in a neutral atom Mass number A total number of neutrons and protons in the nucleus of an atom Mass number the number of protons neutrons Or Number of neutrons mass number atomic number Accepted way to denote atomic number and mass number X an atom with the same atomic number but different mass numbers different number of neutrons EX H sotopes of the same element exhibit similar chemical properties forming the same types of compounds and displaying similar relativities Jncljnclds insert Symbol Na Y Sn Au protons 11 39 50 79 neutrons 12 50 68 118 electons 11 39 50 79 Mass 23 89 118 197 Atomic Weight The atomic mass on the periodic table represents the average mass of the naturally occurring mixture of isotopes thkbj Copper Cu consists of two isotopes with masses 62929599 amu 6917 and 64927793 amu 3083 respectively Convert percent s into equation 6917 06917 Av weight Cn 62929599 amu 06917 64927793 amu 03083 Electron Energy Levels Electromagnetic radiation energy that exhibits wavelike behavior Types Radio waves microwaves infrared radiation visible lights ultraviolent radiation xrays gamma rays Electromagnetic Spectrum Sunlight separated into continuous spectrum light from a heated element gives an atomic spectrum Lines in atomic spectrum are associated with changes energy of electrons Each electron has a speci c energy level These energy levels are assigned values called principal quantum numbers n
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