Notes 9-15-17 & 9-17-15
Notes 9-15-17 & 9-17-15 NTR 213-03
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jennifer Cox on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to NTR 213-03 at University of North Carolina - Greensboro taught by Keith M. Erikson in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Introductory Nutrition in Natural Sciences at University of North Carolina - Greensboro.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
NTR213 91517amp 91715 Student learning outcomes At the end of this chapter you should be able to 39 Compare and contrast Whole grains and rede ned sugars Compare and contrast types of carbohydrates 39 Describe the role of carbohydrates in health and disease 39 Plan a diet to meet carbohydrate recommendations Whole grains vs Rede ned grains 39 Whole grains contain the Whole kernel including the bran germ and endosperm Rede ned grains foods processed to remove course parts such as the bran and germ which removes the ber and some vitamins and minerals Enrichment 39 Legislation requires the forti cation of grains with some of the nutrients removed during processing Empty calories 39 Rede ned sugars contain calories but lack liber and other nutrients 39 Sugars from Whole foods such as fruit and vegetables are more nutrient dense Complex Carbohydrates Excess glucose is linked together for storage 39 Glycogen storage in animal skeletal muscles and the liver 39 Starch storage in plants Fiber a different type of bond links glucose molecules to make plant support structures Humans cannot break this type of bond Excess glucose in animals 39 Glycogen limited storage in skeletal muscles and liver Fat unlimited storage in adipose tissue Soluble fiber vs insoluble ber 39 Soluble ber Dissolves in water 39 Partially digested by bacteria in large intestine Helps lower cholesterol Examples pectins gums and some hemicelluloses Insoluble ber 39 Does not dissolve in water Not digested by bacteria in large intestine 39 Examples cellulose some hemicelluloses and lignin Indigestible carbohydrates 39 Fiber not broken down by human enzymes 39 Oligosaccharides 310 sugar units some are not broken down by human enzymes 39 Resistant starch natural structure of the grain protects the starch molecules or cooking and processing alter digestibility Examples legumes unripe bananas and cold cooked potatoes rice and pasta Glycemic index vs load vs response Glycemic index ranking of how a food affects blood glucose relative to an equivalent amount of carbohydrate from a reference food such as White bread or put glucose Examples White bread 100 kidney beans 25 39 Glycemic load compares the effect of typical portions of food on blood glucose 39 Glycemic response measures how quickly and how high blood glucose levels rise after carbohydrate consumption Carbohydrate functions Energy 39 Lactose used by nerve cells to make milk 39 Ribose and deoxyribose in DNA and RNA 39 Ribose in B vitamin ribo avin 39 Cell membrane signaling 39 Cushioning and lubrication Ketones 39 Ketones or ketone bodies acidic molecules produced by fat breakdown When carbohydrates are not available to cells 39 Heart muscle and kidneys use for energy Brain adapts after 3 days to use ketones Produced with starvation lowcard diets diabetes 39 Ketosis increased ketones in blood 39 Ketoacidosis acidic blood from increased ketones Diabetes mellitus 39 Diseases characterized by high blood glucose Type 1 decreased insulin secretion 39 Autoimmune destruction of insulinsecreting cells in pancreas Type II insulin resistance 39 Gestational first observed during pregnancy Diabetes mellitus signs and symptoms High blood glucose since insulin does not signal cells to take up glucose 39 Causes weight lose since the body breaks down fat 39 causes increased hunger 39 Increased glucose in urine Water tries to dilute glucose causing increased excretion of water causing dehydration and thirst Blurred vision 39 Water tries to dilute glucose in the eye Diabetes mellitus management Control blood sugar levels Limit carbphydrate intake 39 Increase whole grains decrease re ned sugars 39 Type I and some type 11 patients need insulin injections Type 11 patients often take oral drugs Exercise Exercise and weight loss in Type II helps prevent reverse and manage the disease 39 Low saturated fat low trans fat low cholesterol Hypoglycemia 39 Low blood sugar levels 39 Caused by Overmedication with insulin Abnormal insulin or other hormone secretion or response 39 Fasting hypoglycemia when a person has not eaten and usually has some other condition 39 Reactive hypoglycemia too much insulin response after a highcarbohydrate meal Cardiovascular disease Highsugar diets increase blood lipids High blood glucose damages blood vessels Soluble ber decreases cholesterol absorption and synthesis High ber diets decrease blood pressure weight blood glucose and heart disease Diets high in fruits and vegetables increase ber and protective antioxidants Carbohydrate recommendations Enough carbohydrates to meet glucose needs Choosing types for health and disease prevention RDA for carbohydrates 130 gday Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range for carbohydrate 45 65 of total calorie intake Adequate intake for ber 38 gday for meant and 25 gday for women Choosing carbohydrate Wisely 2010 Dietary Guidlines and MyPlate 39 Increase Whole grains fruits and vegetables and reducedfat dietary products Limit foods high in re ned grains and added sugars Dietary Guidelines speci cally recommend reducing intake of sugarsweetened beverages MyPlate recommends 6 oz of grains half should be Whole grains 2 cups of fruit and 2 12 cups of vegetables for a ZOOOcalories diet
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