The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom
The Quantum-Mechanical Model of the Atom CHEM 101
Popular in Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Piper Daniels on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mrs. Leung in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements in Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Chapter 3 Notes 9102015 About the Exam CH 101003 Exam l Monday Sept 14th 5pm615pm Shelby 1004 CH 13 Appllll Bring a 2 pencil Act Card Scientific Calculator know your CWID Know Avogadro39s Number Know how to get from moles to other numbers Look over lecture problems Look over recitation problems Redo your homework after due dates for practice Do suggested problems on the chapter outlines Practice without notes you won t have notes on your test It s going to be 5050 math and conceptual questions Shapes of Atomic Orbitals overview from last lecture 1 The satomic orbital is spherical but the nodes are conical 2 There are three porbital shapes pxpzpy DOrbitals l2 1 n is greater than or equal to 3 2 l2dorbital m21012 3 dxy dxz dyz dxquot2yquot2 dzquot2 4 3dgt4d a larger in size b higher in energy c increase in nodes FOrbitals 1 n greater than or equal to 4 2 l3f orbitals mI321O123 3 you don t need to know the shapes but you need to know that there are 7 different shapes Atoms 1 15 n1 25 n2 2p 2px2py2pz 35 3p 3d3dxy3dxz3dyz3dxquot2yquot23dzquot2 2 15 v5 25 a not in the same principal shell 15n1 25n2 3 25 vs 2p a same principal shell same subshell l1 4 15 v5 25 a different principal shell but also different subshells because they are in different principal 5he5 Ex What orbital correlates to the following set of quantum numbers n4l1ml0 4porbital you don t know which orientation just know that there are 3 different ones Ex Which of the following set of quantum numbers does not exist n3 l3 ml0 ms12 n3 l2 ml3 ms 2 n4 l3 mIO ms12 n1 l3 mIO ms 2 More than one option w e 9 c 9 Set a cannot exist because the I can only b 01 or 2 Set b cannot exist because m can only be 21012 Set c lS POSSIBLE Set d cannot exist because I can only be 0 AMthis means that the answer is e Orbitals 1 Orbitals are waves with phases positive or negative 2 node nede EDI rh lt l shade ineieete the di ere nee in nine 4 sorbita 0 node 3dr Energy of Principal Shell 1 The energy of an electron in each principal shell is described by Rydberg Equation a EnRH1n2 b RHRydberg constant218e18 J 2 More stable the system the smaller the energy more negative the value 3 The energy of the electron is a negative value because of its interaction with the nucleus proton a Opposite charges attract 4 n11s E218e1811quot2 218e18 J n22s or 2p E218e1812quot2 545e19 J 6 As n increases E absolute value decreases a but energy value b less stable as the principal shell decreases c as n increases vou are becoming less stable 7 The gap between each shell gets smaller as we increase in principal shell 0 E un4 Full113 EE4EE1Q J nettee the gee n2 EeEe eutg l quot Firemen 1 all 2 Ie biggerthen the gle between ne2 and 39 ll quotl1 EE1e l J a As n gets larger the difference between the energy of electrons between principal shells decreases 8 1s gt2s 2p gt3s n1 gtn2 n2 gtn3 Larger amount of energy Smaller amount of energy 9 EnRH1n2 FOR A HYDROGEN ATOM aH 1 electron b For all other elements there are more than 1 electron causing electronelectron repulsion destabilizes the electron Bohr Model of an Atom 1 Electrons can be excited electron transitions to a higher principal shell ex 2sgt4d a Absorb energy in form of electricity light or heat 2 Electrons can relax electron transitions to a lower principal shell ex 3pgt1s a Loses energy and releasesemits it as light b This energy is given a specific color 3 Change in energy RH1nf21ni2 a niinitial principal shell b nffinal principal shell c Excitation Change in energy is a positive value i System atom absorbs the necessary energy to excite the electron d Relaxation Change in energy is a negative value i System atom releases the energy Ex When an electron in a hydrogen atom transitions from the 3dorbital to 2porbital how much energy in J is absorbed or emitted Given n3 and nf2 relaxation Change in energyRH1nf21ni2 218e18J 2quot213quot2 303e19J emitted 1 Emitted energy is released from the atom system in the form of light surrounding 239 EsystemEsurrounding 3 Eaton 303e19 J releasedemitted 4 Esurroundmg 303e19 J Ephoton hv hc7t Ex What is the wavelength of the light that s coming out in the last problem xhcE 6626e34 Js 300e8 ms 303e19J 6565e7m 657 nmorange photon Ex How much energy in J to eject an electron in n3 in a hydrogen atom initial n 3 final n infinity eject change in energy 218e18 J 1inifityquot213quot2 242e19 J 1infinity O atom absorbs the energy The different colors within the spectrum are created by the electrons being relaxed releasing light as energy in color There s a difference color for each atom because there s a difference wavelength for each specific atom
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