Periodic Properties of Elements
Periodic Properties of Elements CHEM 101
Popular in Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements
Popular in Science
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Piper Daniels on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mrs. Leung in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Structural Chemistry, with Application to Chemistry of the Elements in Science at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for Periodic Properties of Elements
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/20/15
Chapter 4 Periodic Properties of Elements Periodic Table 1 Elements are ordered in the periodic table by increasing atomic number number of protons 2 Elements in the same column of the periodic table have the same chemical and physical properties a Ex 27Co and 28Ni b Cobalt 5893 amu Nickel 5869 amu not exactly ordered by atomic mass 0 Protonseectrons if the atom is neutral 3 Period row in the periodic table period 17 a Labeled down the left side of the periodic table 4 GroupFamily column in the periodic table 118 a Labeled along the top of the periodic table b Specifically done by 123121318 0 Main group elements elements that are the most abundant on earth in the solar system and in the universe i GroupA 1 These are in group 12 and 1318or 3A8A d Transition Elements elements with an incomplete dsubshell meaning not all 5dsubshells have the maximum number of electrons in them or can have incomplete dsubshells by being a cation i GroupB 1 These are in group 312 e Inner Transition Elements last two rows at the bottom of the periodic table i Rare earth elements ii Belong to period 6 and 7 iii Lanthanides period 6 between group BB amp 48 iv Actinides period 7 between group BB amp 48 Electron Configuration 1 Electron Configuration shows the particular orbitals that electrons occupy in an atom a Ground state when writing electron configurations the ground state is used i Referring to the lowest energy most stable configuration 2 For hydrogen ERH1n2 a Depends on the principal shell n b As n increases energy increases so n1 0 Works for hydrogen because it only has one electron d Other elements have more than one electron so there is electronelectron interactions repulsion 3 H 1 proton 1 electron 8 Electron con guration 181 lt ofelectrons in the 1sorbital 4 Orbital Diagram similar to electron configuration but electrons are represented with arrows or 13 is a The arrow pointing up or down is symbolizing different spin i ms12 the arrow is pointing down ii ms12 the arrow is pointing up Electron Configuration for Elements Besides Hydrogen 1 2s vs 2porbital same n2 2 Energysorbital is more stable lt Energyporbital lt Energydorbital lt Energy forbital is less stable a This is because of i Coulomb39s Law ii Shielding iii Penetration 3 Energy of orbitals depend on both n and l Coulomb s Law 1 Describes the attraction and repulsion between charged particles a Opposite charges attract p gt lt e39 b Like charges repel p lt gt p e39 lt gt e39 c E 14nso q1q2r i qcharge of particle Electric chargeunitCoulombC ii rdistance between the particles m iii so885x103912 CZJm 2 For like charges a q1 q2 E value b q1 q2 E value c E a 1r As r increases E decreases i Absolute value of energy decreases ii Energy is a positive value therefore energy decreases as r increases iii More stable as like charges get further apart d As r decreases Energy increases i absolute value of energy E ii E is a positive value therefore Energy increases as r decreases iii Becoming less stable 3 Opposite Charges a p gtlt e39q1q2E b As r decreases E increases absolute value of E increasing i 2J gt 4J absolute value has increased ii 2J gt 4J absolute value has increased iii Energy is a negative value therefore E decreases as r decreases iv More stable as opposite charges get closer together c As r increases absolute value of E decreased i E is a negative value with opposite charged particles ii E increased as r increased iii Less stable when you bring like charges further apart 4 The strength of the interaction increases with increased charge 5 Opposite charges a 2 p1 e39 2 and 1 i E a q1 and q2 ii 212 b 1 p1e391 and 1 i 111 c Stronger attraction with larger charges i More negative energy value ii More stable 6 Like charges a 2e391e39 i 212 b 1e391e i 111 c Stronger repulsion with larger charges i Less stable ii More positive energy value 7 Summary a Like charges more stable smaller positive energy if the charged particles are further apart andor have a smaller charge b Opposite charges more stable more negative energy if the charged particles are closer together andor have a larger charge ex 1sorbital rsmaller radius ELess energy More stable 2sorbital rlarger radius Emore energy Less stable Shielding 1 Shieldingscreening repulsion of one electron by another electron which in turn prevents the electron from feeling the full effect of the nuclear charge p 2 Li 3 protons 2 electrons sonneocs 3rd e Zeffeffective nuclear charge Zeff Zs 321 Zactua nuclear charge of protons Snumber of charges number of electrons shielding The third electron feels Zeff1 referring to q of proton The third electron is less stable