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Notes Week 4

by: Madeline Redding

Notes Week 4 PHIL 1000 - 01

Madeline Redding
General Introduction to Philosophy
Matthew McGrath

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About this Document

Week 4 of notes, includes notes on Kant and Hume. As well as notes comparing the two different philosophies.
General Introduction to Philosophy
Matthew McGrath
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madeline Redding on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Matthew McGrath in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 09/20/15
Kant39s Ethics Many of his ethics are written with Hume in mind Hypothetical Imperatives o If you want to succeed in school you ought to study for your tests 0 If you want to feel energetic you ought to get a good night39s sleep 0 If you want X you ought to do Y Categorical Imperatives 0 You ought to do Y period Not quotif you want such and suchquot 0 Moral obligations are categorical imperatives You ought not lie You ought to keep your promises You ought to be generous You don39t get out of them simply by saying quotbut that doesn39t serve my goalsquot Overall Argument in Kant o Morality applies to all rational beings irrespective of their desires o The only thing that can apply to all rational beings irrespective of their desires are laws of reason Therefore 3 Morality derives from laws of reason Another route to the same conclusion Start with the idea of a good will See how this leads to the idea of a will determined by a moral law of reason Good Will 0 Only the will can be unconditionally good Everything else is good only if in a good Will 0 A kind of moral worth Actions have it when the will is good 0 What makes a will good if Reason is the basis of morality EX Unlucky bad driver Unlucky bad drive could back out of the driveway as recklessly as a lucky bad driver but one could hit a child and the other doesnT Which one is more wrong Kant argues that both do equally wrong o How could a will be good in its willing alone Look at the concept of duty The good will does what conforms to duty and does it from duty I What conforms from duty vs what is done from duty Doing something good for the wrong reason would be going against duty law requires out of respect for the moral law respect for it one39s will is good It must be a law of reason 0 if 1e Categorical Imperative Act only on that maxim which you could also will to be a universal law Maxim a form of words describing what you39re doing I Universal Law here Kant has in mind a regularity always followed like a law of nature Act only on a maxim that is universal Procedure 0 Specify your maxim 0 Ask whether you could alsowithout inconsistency Wilthat everyone follow that maxim quotcould you will it to be a universal lawquot 0 Not what it accomplishes Its willing alone Doing things in conformity with duty doing what the moral What can the moral law be so that by conforming to it out of If the answer to 2 is no the action is wrong if the answer to 2 is yes the action is permitted Humanity Principle Shopkeeper Example Duty requires he give correct change conforming to what he is supposed to do Now assume he does it because it is better for business he is no longer doing it because duty tells him he is supposed to 731 If not everyone can do it it isn39t right Ex What would Kant say about suicide A Suicide is wrong because your maxim is not universalizable B it is permissible because it is universalizable 0 Act so that in your action you use humanity in your own person and in others as always at the same time an end in itself and never merely as a means pg 769 o 7333 For Kant Right acts treat others and oneself always as ends in themselves and merely as means Basic Features of Kant39s Ethics Main Differences Between Kant and Hume if Kant thinks promise According to Kant reason can move the will According to Hume it can39t br aking iSWr0ng for a 0 Both agree that moral judgments can move the will rat39onal be39ngs 0 They disagree about the source of morality for Kant it is reason for Hume it is passion What would Kant say to Hume o What would Kant say to the argument that neither demonstrative nor probable reasoning can move the will and that all reasoning falls into one of these categories 0 What would Kant say in the case of willful murderwhere is the vice 0 Look for a case where the murder is wrong Try to disprove a sweeping argument 0 What could Hume say to the claim that a good will must do its duty from duty o It is necessary to do what is right and the good will is right 0 What could Hume say to the claim that moral obligations apply regardless of what you want 0 Moral obligations come from passions o Hume would disapprove of people who are not sympathetic if he has a passion for sympathy I Says that they have moral obligations and he will apply this passion to everyone regardless of what they want Kant on Morality Review 0 Morality comes from reason not from quotimpulsesquot or quotinclinationsquot passions o Applies to all rational beings o The only unconditionally good thing is good will 0 An action has moral worth if and only if it expresses a good will 0 An action expresses a good will 1 the action is in conformity with moral law 2 the action is motivated by duty 0 Categorical Imperative Act only on that maxim which you could also will to be a universal law 0 Humanity Principle Always treat others as an end and never as a means only


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