chapter 5 nerves, hormones, and target tissue
chapter 5 nerves, hormones, and target tissue AGSC 352
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by nicole l brown on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AGSC 352 at Truman State University taught by Dr. Kelly Walter in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Reproduction Physiology in Agricultural & Resource Econ at Truman State University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Repro Dr Walter Chapter 6 vocab 0 Male vs female 0 Male hypothalamus 0 It is Established prenatally 0 Testosterone defeminizes brain 0 Defeminizing is when testosterone is converted to estradiol By the testosterone crosses through the bloodbrain barrier and it is then converted into estradiol and it gets ride of the surge center of the brain 0 Female hypothalamus 0 Lacks testosterone and has the GnRH surge center in the hypothalamus 0 The hypothalamus has a surge center that is protected by the alphafetoprotein this binds to the estradiol and won t let it pass through that barrier into the brain 0 Endocrine profiles 0 Male GnRH does not work in the male because of the lack of the surge center There is a constant secretion in a pulsating pattern about every 26 hrs This gland release LH in a steady pulse This also secretes testosterone in a pulse to 0 Female the surge center releases estradiol and LH every 20 days 0 Puberty 0 Is the ability to reproduce successfully this is true for both the male and female This happens over time and how this process gets started is by the secretion of GnRH at the appropriate frequency and quantities to stimulate the gonadotropin these are release by pituitary The gonadotropins help to promote the steroidogenesis gametogenesis and the development of reproductive tissues 0 Female 0 Age at first estrus or heat this is the stage when the female shows behavioral signs showing that she is receptive to a male 0 Age at first ovulation this can be determined by a manual or visual validation but this has to be done 9can be difficult in laparoscopy or endoscopy first time heifers ovulate it is not followed by behavioral estrus is it called silent ovulation the age of first estrus and ovulation can differ 0 Age at which pregnancy can be supported without deleterious effects this is more from a practical point of view 0 Males Age when behavioral traits are expressed this can be seen by mounting and showing an erection They will try these behaviors even if there aren t fertile Age at first ejaculation this is when the ejaculation process is functional This process has to have coordination of the nerves glans and muscles This process can be premature they aren t fertile yet Age when spermatozoa first appear in ejaculate this is when the body can produce seminal uid and be able to ejaculate but this is still before spermatozoa are fertile In a management standpoint you can determine this by collection every week Age when ejaculate contains threshold of spermatozoa the number of sperm can be to lower to even fertilize anything know your minimum Before puberty the distribution and morphology of neurons secrete GnRH increase in neurons as puberty begins The function of GnRH that secreting neurons are in uenced by the plane of nutrition this is where females have to acquire a certain body size degree of fatness Exposure to environmental and social sues this can determine on season and photoperiod also the presence of the opposite sex and the density of group housing can be a factor Genetics this can vary on breed variation Female fatness The focus is on energy maintenance of the vital physiologic functions the least important are the nonessential process of repro Increase of growth and energy intake the bodies mass well increase but the surface area of the body decreases this can shift the metabolic expenditure and it allows non vital physiologic functions to start developing There is no certain threshold level for fat build up that can be determined high frequency GnRH pulses are in uenced by glucose and the free fatty acid concentrations that are present in blood Leptin It is a hormonal peptide bond that is secreted by fat cells This is increased in blood and that increases adipocytes fat cells The receptors are present in the anterior lobe of the pituitary and hypothalamus This plays an important role in controlling the onset of puberty and it can signal to hypothalamic neurons when a certain degree of fatness has been achieved Environmental and social conditions The external factors have a big in uence on when puberty happens The sensory neurons of the optic and olfactory systems are anticipated by the environmental information This process is stimuli by CNS and delivered as neural inputs to the GnRH neurons of hypothalamus high frequency and low amplitude pulses of GnRH at an earlier age is the hypothalamus The month that the animal is born can in uences age of pubertyreally in seasonal breeds for example sheep begin estrous cycles because of the short day lengthslamb born in spring reach puberty at 56 months of age fall lambs reach pub At 1012 monthsheifers born in fall go into earlier puberty than those born in springthe exposure to the long photoperiods at those 6 months of their life makes puberty happen faster Social cues it is caused by the olfactory recognition of the phenomenal substances in the urine When females are in the presence of male this can get puberty on faster these females have a greater chance of becoming pregnant the size of the group can make pub Happen faster bigger group better
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