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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Wagner on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 311 at University at Buffalo taught by in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 54 views. For similar materials see Drugs and society in Sociology at University at Buffalo.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
SOC 311 Drugs and Society Kristen ConnoHy Notes from 83115 91615 Sociology the study of human conduct and its relationship to social interaction and social conduct ObjectiveEssentialistic Reality approach to reality that de nes phenomena by objective properties a drug with any psychoactive effects Constructionalist Reality how the setting changes perception of a drug how the drug is seen and dealt with A drug is whatever the members of a societythe law de ne as a drug a social artifact Pharmacological Concepts 1 AcuteChronic Distinction Acute effects rapidshortterm effects 0 Chronic effects effects that take place over a long period of time 0 Direct effects consequences of taking the drug which are caused by the drug itself ex Memory loss after binge drinking 0 Indirect effects consequences of taking the drug that are not caused by the drug itself but by the circumstances of use ex Loss of a job because you always run late in the morning from being intoxicated the night before 2 EDLD ratio 0 ED Effective dose quantity of a given drug that produces a speci c effect in a percentage of a designated group of subjects 0 LD Lethal dose drug s toxicity quantity of the drug that produces death in some individuals EDLD Ratio size of the difference between the ED and LD 3 Drug Tolerances Pharmacological diminished effects take place because of interaction in the molecular level between a drug and the body s neurochemistry 0 Not all users experience tolerance Behavioral takes place because the user becomes accustomed to the effects of a given drug and how to act under its in uence Factors that In uence the Action of Druds Route of administration IV oral nasal dermal patches smoking 0 Dose the amount taken PotencyPurity o Potency quantity required to produce a given effect the higher the potency the less amount of the drug that needs to be taken to feel the effects 0 Purity percent of a drug that a given sample contains 0 Drug mixing two or more substances taken at the same time Antagonistic Effects cancels outnullifies effects of a certain substance when two substances are taken into the body Food and Drug Administration FDA has jurisdiction over legal drugs regulates medicines foods etc Drug Enforcement Administration DEA has jurisdiction over illegalillicitillegally used drugs goal is to immobilize drug traf cking organizations Schedule I Drugs 0 No current medical use 0 High potential for abuse 0 Most dangerous potentially severe psychologicalphysical dependence 0 Examples Heroin LSD Marijuana Ecstasy Schedule II Drugs 0 High potential for abuse but less than Schedule Drugs 0 Examples Cocaine Oxycontin Schedule III Drugs 0 Moderate to low potential for psychologicalphysical dependence 0 Less abuse potential than Schedule I and II Drugs 0 Examples Vicodin Tylenol with Codeine Schedule VI Drugs 0 Low potential for abuse 0 Low dependence 0 Examples Xanax Valim Schedule V Drugs 0 Consist of certain preparations containing limited quantity of certain narcotics 0 Generally used for antidiarrheal antitussive and analgesic purposes 0 Examples Robitussin Lyrica judgmental Heuristics awed informal rules of thumb that people use to reach conclusions Availability Heuristics belief that phenomena that readily comes to mind are more frequent that they are Prevalence Rate percent of a given population that has used a speci c drug within a speci c time period 0 Can be measured by lifetime past year or past month s use 0 Most used illicit drug Marijuana then cocaine Continuance Rate loyalty a gure calculated on the basis of comparing the proportion of atleastonetimeusers who have also taken that drug within a more recent time period 0 Legal drugs have a higher continuance rate than illegal drugs 0 Alcohol has the highest loyalty of all drugs 0 Marijuana has the highest loyalty of all illegal drugs Consumption Level Facts 0 Alcohol is consumed by the greatest number of people 0 Tobacco is used the most number of times Cocaine is used 16 times more than heroin Life Cycle Rates varying likelihoods of using drugs at different ages in the life span llegal drug use is strongly related to age and position in life cycle 0 Drug Use vs Ages Youth relatively low Young Adults extremely high Adults low Adults 35 yrs extremely low OOOO Systematic Data data gathered in a planned fashion and represent an accurate view of the study End of Week 1 Sta rt of Week 2 Cocaine o In the beginning very popular cheap widely distributed 0 Lower classes began to use cocaine as a substitute for alcohol 0 Employers would give cocaine to workers to keep them going strong with little amounts of food Cure for opium morphine and alcohol addictions o Masked symptoms but did not cure ailments viewed as O a quotgodsendquot Now dangers are widely accepted use of cocaine is frowned upon quotHookedquot Movie Notes Opium was used the rst drug used before painkillers produced a calming effect to the user Became a social drug people liked being with other people and that was the trend at the time 0 Even quotcuresquot for opium contained opium 0 Did not need a prescription It was better to be addicted to morphine than alcohol because the symptoms were more manageable Drugs were injected directly into the bloodstream These drugs created extreme highs and extreme lows in a person s emotionspsychological activity Laudanum taken for headaches tooth aches fevers and other ailments o This drug was within the means of the lowest paid workers Patent Medicines ingredients were not listed the drug s formula was secret Trends Over Time 17905 1919 1830 Nation s highpoint in alcohol consumption Psychoactive substances were easily available from many sources 1920 Alcohol Prohibition 0 18th Amendment illegal to sell or manufacture alcohol in the USA Colonial Times most people drank a lot and drank often People s tastes went from beer to wine to liquor 19605 1979 0 Time of experimentation tye dye quotdropping acidquot quotpsychedelic 605quot Initiated modern era of drug use 0 19705 illicit drug use was most widespread 19805 Present 0 Major decline in drug usage then rose again o19905 middle school to young high school aged individuals began using drugs Cocaine Based Soft Drinks 0 Soft drinks usually contained psychoactive substances 0 Early 20th century companies had to quotdecocainizequot o CocaCola did more harm to humans than all drugs put together it was used to give people energy and uplifted spirits cocaine and caffeine Medical Scienti c Technological Innovations o Morphine was extracted from opium Synthesis of codeine Hypodermic syringe brought to the USA IV usage Heroin was synthesized from morphine Movement to Prohibit Alcohol 1794 1920 Employers stopped giving employees alcohol breaks Employers red employees who drank on the job 0 Soldiers no longer received alcohol rations o Ardent Spirits liquor Urban saloons became targets for prohibitionists Early Anti Opium Legislation 0 Wanted to get rid of the recreational use of opium Targeted Chinese immigrants who settled in California Pure Food and Drug Act 1906 0 Federal law passed foods drinks medications need to be labeled ingredients needed to be listed Upton Sinclair quotThe Junglequot book about the weaknesses dangers and terrors of the meat packing industry Volstead Act outlawed the sale and distribution of alcohol The Shanghai Commission and the Hague Conference 0 Chinese government banned opium 1729 0 British still wanted to import opium but the Chinese tried to stop them 0 Chinese lost this was the quotOpium Warsquot 0 Doctor Hamilton Wright quotFather of American Narcotic Lawsquot Harrison Act of 1914 Bill drafted to eliminate all nonmedical use of narcotics prescription was required 0 Control the trafficking of opiates and cocaine 0 Pre Harrison Act addicts white middle class middle age women 0 Post Harrison Act addicts criminal men Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 Federal Law Began along the Mexican American border among low class people 0 Image of a marijuana user changed went from quotviolent psychopathquot to quothippie dropoutquot Thought that marijuana caused users to act violently FBI Harry Anslinger started a major media campaign to convince the public of evil effects Controlled Substance Act 0 Manufacture importation possession use and distribution was Suspended and replaced all prior federal drug legislation controlled over certain drugs and substances AntiDrug Abuse Act 1986 minimum sentences for cocaine possession AntiDrug Abuse Act 1988 death penalty for major traffickers and penalties for dealers Rockefeller Drug Laws 1973 New York had many of the toughest drug laws in the country 0 Illegal to possess a needle without medical need for it 0 Illegal to quotpossess the precursorsquot ingredients needed for the synthetic drug of manufactured drugs Heroin dealer may be charged with murder if a customer overdoses and dies Sociologist vs Historian Sociologists looked into assumptions which were the starting points for historians Joseph Gusfield Studied the relationship between temperance attitudes organized temperance movement and con icts between subcultures 0 Thought that drinking was a way for Americans to express their cultural commitments Who founded the Temperance Movement 0 Men joined temperance associations to keep them in good running and to preserve their middleclass status More acceptable to drink with food andor family 0 Drinking and abstinence became symbols of social status Sobriety was seen as virtuous and necessary to keep social acceptance Types of Reforms o Assimilative Reform reformer is sympathetic to the reformees trying to bring them up to middleclass status Coercive Reformviews reformees as an unchangeable threat to their way of life believe they do not want to change and sees them as a threat to their dominant position Utility of Drugs Uses of drugs may be different to different people Medically for people who are sick disordered or abnormal goal is to return to a state of normalcy 0 Used by doctors to treat the body or mind 0 Objective reality drug acts as a healing agent by physicians o Subjective reality how the medical profession de nes substances must be recognized as therapeutically useful lllegality any substance whose possession and sale are against the law 0 Drugs are made illegal because they are found to be harmful o The law and law enforcement de ne what a drug is o Socially constructed when a drug law is enacted a category of illegal substances is created 0 Drug laws vary in different places and change frequently 0 Psychoactivity has signi cant effects on the mind in uences mood emotion and cognitive processes 0 Drugs are used to take the mind out of a state of normalcy Drug Use act of ingesting a certain substance with any frequency over a period of time Drug Abuse matter of degree larger doses or higher effects Recreational Drug Use taking a chemical substance to receive the pleasurable effects that the drug generates in users Legal Instrumental Use functional reason to take a drug 0 Over the counter OTC not strongly psychoactive rarely used to get high 0 Drug Awareness Warning Network DAWN collects information on hospital emergencies and drug overdoses Pharmaceutical major source of psychoactive drug use Legal Recreational Use use of alcohol tobacco and caffeine consumed for physic state 0 Police can nd you with this and you will not get in trouble Illegal Instrumental Use taking a drug without prescriptions for an instrumental purpose that society approves of Illegal Recreational Use surveys are the primary source of information on these statistics
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