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by: Samuel Gozinsky

9-16-15 COM 107

Samuel Gozinsky
Communications and Society
Prof. Chock

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Communications and Society
Prof. Chock
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samuel Gozinsky on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 107 at Syracuse University taught by Prof. Chock in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Communications and Society in Communication at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 09/20/15
COM 107 Notes 91615 Social Cognitive theory A Earlier version social learning theory a Albert Bandura we could learn through observing media we didn39t have to have a face to face interaction In his experiment children who saw lms of people getting punished for beating up a doll wouldn39t do the same when given the opportunity to do the same but those who saw people get rewarded would beat up the doll b Modeling or learning through observation c Meditated models many times the hero will do most of the violent behavior Somewhat of an issue because the hero is glori ed B Factors in uencing modeling a Rewardpunishment b Characteristics of the model c Perceived self ef cacy can we accomplish what the quotmodelquot in media accomplishes wearing Jordans d Perceived reality e Individual characteristics C Generalization when we see things in the media be repeated we begin to believe that they are socially normative or if we don39t know about something many of our premature perceptions come from what we learn in the media Cultivation A Social reality perceptions what is the world really like B Gerbner gross morgan and signorielli C Media content a Homogenous b Emphasizes speci c themes certain themes get repeated a lot in media D Exposure a Cumulative effects people who watch soap operas tend to believe that it is more likely that people will cheat in marriages Media always leaves an impression b High vs Low viewers E quotA cruel worldquot what repeated violence in media fosters is beliefs in social reality that the world is more violent than it really is However Homicide rates have dropped drastically since the 19905 when it was at an alltime high Fear in danger has increased but society has actually become safer F Caution correlation isn39t causation Desensitization A Exposure decreases a Sensitivity over time things that are shocking horrible or terrible become less shocking and repeated exposure makes our reaction ware off VI V b Arousal we have become accustom to women39s bodies being used to sell everything from cars to Axe body spray to beer In Europe nudity is not a big deal but they think we are very violent c Concern B Increases Appetite once you become desensitized to something you crave more and more and higher intensity of violence or whatever the subject is History of news A Colonial papers a Partisan Press and commercial news partisan press was when political parties would fund the newspapers At rst the rebels against king George would fund the papers Commercial news was ads for everything from silver to slaves to boats b Audience literate individuals usually people from higher ends of society There was a push in the US to make more people literate B Penny Press a Technological and social developments cheaper paper and cheaper printing process more people could also read Humaninterest stories what people are doing Politics Making the news sometimes stories were created made up e Audience the audience could now be the general public Yellow Press A Sensationalism a Examples certain events were sometimes created People went around the world in 80 days B lnvestigativejournalism a Watchdog role went in to nd the treatment of people in mental asylums and prisons They wanted to nd out what was going on inside they would sometimes go undercover Example Upton Sinclair39s the Jungle C Newspaper wars a Hearst s Journal vs Pulitzer39s New York World went down to Cuba one of their stories led to the Spanish American war remember the maine Contrast w the 6 cent press the NYT was set up as the quotjust the factsquot type ofjournalism A Facts something not ashamed of reading in front of children B Audience more high class Growth of Objectivity A Economic Basis advertisements began popping up in newspapers but papers had to be objective so that they wouldn39t offend supporters of certain political parties and their audience would be large enough to continue getting ads B Substantial or straight news a NYT Ochs b Distancing C Wire Services made it possible to get info from around the world very quickly Many news and papers would get their news which was 000 V XI XII straight facts from AP there is no opinion involved in the story People wanted to make up their own minds D News Audience Just the facts A 5 W39s B The Inverted Pyramid you can get the info all about the story just from reading the rst paragraph a Key evidence b Supporting explanations quotes c Supporting quotes and alternative explanations d Least important details C Reporter as detached observer Interpretive Journalism A Straight news and editorials a Context b Objectivity vs balance presentation of both sides of a story B Problems a A balanced view 1 More than two sides 2 Equal weight sometimes the impression is given that quotthe jury is still outquot on issues that are actually 100 decided because the media is married to the idea that they MUST show both sides b Distinguishing opeds from straight news Advocacy journalism A Openly advocating POV B Alternativejournalism a journalists as agents of social change b ie Dorothy Day C Other Examples some online sights advocate a particular position Functions of News Media A Source of social political information where we can nd out whats going on around the world B Watchdog against those abusing power PACs trade agreements etc C A forum in which diverse opinions are presented The Gatekeeping process A Screening and Selecting stories a What is quotnewsworthyquot b Personnel in news organizations serve as gatekeepers letting some stories pass and keeping others out c The media doesn39t tell us what to think but it tells us what to think about B Agenda setting a The media lets us know what is going on C Framing Certain stories are told in certain ways This sometimes has an impact on what quotmakes the newsquot Is it a good visual Sometimes there is a particular bias in certain media outlets and that constitutes how they frame stories apem


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