Chapter 2 notes
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Date Created: 09/20/15
CHAPTER 2 AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY CHAPTER OVERVIEW This chapter outlines the primary components of a multidimensional model of psychopathology The multidimensional model considers genetic contributions the role of the nervous system behavioral and cognitive processes emotional influences cultural social and interpersonal influences and developmental factors in explaining the causes of and even the factors that maintain psychological disorders This chapter describes these areas of influence as well as their interaction in producing mental disorder LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1 2 3 4900 Distinguish between multidimensional vs unidimensional models of causality Identify the main influences comprising the multidimensional model Define and describe how genes interact with environmental factors to influence behavior Identify the different models proposed to describe how genes interact with environmental factors to affect behavior Explain the role of neurotransmitters and their involvement in abnormal behavior Identify the functions of different brain regions and their role in psychopathology Compare and contrast the behavioral and cognitive theories and how they are used to explain the origins of mental illness Explain the nature and role of emotions in psychopathology Describe cultural social and developmental influences on abnormal behavior Explain the importance of considering psychological disorders from a lifespan developmental perspective CHAPTER 2 OUTLINE ONEDIMENSIONAL OR MULTIDIMENSIONAL MODELS One dimensional model Explain behavior in terms of a single cause Could mean a paradigm school or conceptual approach Tends to ignore information from other areas people pick something that is more important and focus on that one thing EX explaining OCD as the result of family history biology alone OR explaining PTSD from behavioral traumatic experience alone Dimensions of the multidimensional model Interdisciplinary eclectic and integrative circuits of what s going on in the brain not just one part a number of structures system of influences that cause and maintain suffering Abnormal behavioral results from multiple influences interacting on each other no influence operates in isolation Dimensions each dimension is strongly influenced by others and b development and they weave together in intricate ways to create a psychological disorder 1 Biological include genetic and neuroscience contribution 2 Psychological behavioral and cognitive processes including learned helplessness social learning prepared learning and even unconscious processes Major influences 1 Emotional influences and social and interpersonal influences 2 Developmental factors GENETIC CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY Phenotype how it manifests in the person EX having brown eyes vs Genotype genetic status EX having a certain allele The Nature of Genes Development and behavior is often polygenetic several genes contributing to the outcome 0 Hundreds of genes can contribute to the heritability of a single trait 0 Genes get turned on expressed and environmental factors can determine this environmental factors can override predisposition EX studies with rat pups researchers have found that the absence of normal maternal behavior of licking and grooming prevents the genetic expression of a glucocorticoid receptor that modulates stress hormones This means rats with inadequate maternal care have greater sensitivity to stress New Developments in the Study of Genes and Behavior For psychological disorders the evidence indicates that genetic factors make some contribution to all disorders but account for less than half of the explanation o EX if you have an identical twin with depression in reality it is less than 50 of the other twin having the same disorder also schizophrenia Even if we have identical twins same genetic makeup still have different environmental experiences due to adoption studies 0 Genetic factors determined stability in cognitive abilities whereas environmental factors were responsible for any changes The Interaction of Genes and the Environment Eric Kandel and gene environmental interactions 0 The genetic structure of cells actually changes as a result of learning experiences environment may occasionally turn on certain genes 0 EX an inactive gene may become active because of environmental influences Plasticity of brain and functioning Models of geneenvironmental interaction 1 Diathesisstress model individuals inherit tendencies to express certain traits or behaviors which may then be activated under conditions of stress a Diathesis also known as vulnerability each inherited tendency a condition that makes someone susceptible to developing a disorder EX Judy inherited the tendency to faint at the sight of blood b Stress environment ACTIVATION Disorders are the result of underlying risk factors EX intolerance of distress sensitivity to physical sensations and life stressors EX losing a job getting married c EX vulnerability to alcoholism during college both person and a friend who lack the tendency to engage in extended drinking bouts but only the individual with the socalled addictive genes begins the downward spiral into alcoholism The smaller the vulnerability the greater the life stress required to produce the disorder and greater vulnerability less life stress required 2 Reciprocal geneenvironmental modelgeneenvironmental correlation model a Genetic endowment may increase the probability that an individual will experience stressful life events EX people will genetic vulnerability to develop a certain disorder such as bloodinjectioninjury phobia may also have personality trait impulsiveness that makes them more likely to be involved in the minor accidents that would result in them seeing blood b This model applies to the development of depression because some people may tend to seek out difficult relationships or other circumstances leading to depression Genetically determined tendency to create environmental risk factors triggering genetic vulnerability EX you and your spouse each have an identical twin and both identical twins have been divorce the chance that you will also divorce increases greatly Epigenetics and the Nongenomic Inheritance of Behavior Environmental influences EX parenting style may override genetics Francis studied stress reactivity and how it passed through generations using a procedure called crossfostering where a rat pup born to one mother is assigned to another mother for rearing o 1st maternal behavior affected how the young rats tolerated stress calmsupportive mothers rat pups were less fearful and better able to tolerate stress 0 Francis took some newly born rat pups of easily stressed mothers and placed them for rearing with calm mothers Result calm and supportive behavior by the mothers could be passed down through generations of rats independent of genetic in uences Tirnari children of schizophrenic parents and who were adopted as babies demonstrated a tendency to develop psychiatric disorders themselves only if adopted into dysfunctional families 0 Those children adopted into functional families did not develop disorders 0 Genetic contribution to a personality trait or to a psychological disorder is 50we can only talk of genetic contribution only in context of the individual s past and present environment Epigenetics study of factors other than inherited DNA sequences such as a new learning of stress that alter phenotypic expression of genes Genes turned on or off by cellular material located just outside genome c Environmental events can affect genetic structure by determining if certain genes are activated NEUROSCIENCE AND ITS CONTRIBUTIONS TO PSYCHOPATHOLOGY The Central Nervous System Neurons operate electrically but communicate chemically neurotransmitters are the chemical messengers Neuron Nerve Cell individual nerve cell responsible for transmitting information d Soma cell body e Dendrite receptors that receive messages in form of chemical impulses converted into electrical impulse f Axon transmit message away to other neurons g Synaptic cleft space between neurons where chemical transmitters act to move impulses from one neuron to the next Neurotransmitters biochemical released from axon and transit impulses to dendrite receptors of another neuron Gila cells The Structure of the Brain 2 main parts 1 Brainstem hindbrain midbrain thalamushypothalamus between brainstem and forebrain o Hindbrain regulates automatic processes a Medulla heart rate blood pressure respiration b Pons regulates sleep stages c Cerebellum involved in motor coordination Midbrain coordinates movement with sensory input and contains parts of the reticular activating system RAS RAS contributes to arousal and tension which influences sleep and wakefulness Thalamus involved in sensory and motor signal relay and the regulation of consciousness and sleep Hypothalamus produces hormones that control body temperature hunger mood release of hormones from many glands especially the pituitary gland sex drive sleep thirst heart rate 2 Forebrain limbic system basal ganglia and cerebral cortex larges part of the brain the wrinkled outer structure 0 O Limbic system emotional experiencesbasic drives of sex aggression hunger and thirst Located on top of brainstem and buried under the cortex The amygdala and hippocampus memory a Amygdala responsible for determining what memories are stored and where the memories are stored in the brain b Hippocampus sends memoires out to the appropriate part of the cerebral hemisphere for longterm storage and retrieves them when necessary damage inability to form new memories Cerebral cortex contains 2 hemispheres left and right and each one has 4 lobes with specialized processes lobes 1 Frontal thinking and reasoning abilities memory 2 Parietal touch recognition 3 Occipital integrates visual input 4 Temporal recognition of sights and sounds longterm memory storage Basal ganglia collection of nuclei found on both sides of the thalamus outside and above the limbic system but below the cingulate gyrus and within the temporal lobes Glutamate most common neurotransmitter here and inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA which plays the most important role in the basal ganglia Largest group of nuclei corpus striatum striped body which is made up of the caudate nucleus tail the putamen shell the Globus pallidus pale globe and the nucleus accumbens leaning The Peripheral Nervous System Somatic branch of PNS controls voluntary muscles and movement Autonomic branch of the PNS involuntary processes 0 Sympathetic and parasympathetic branches regulates cardiovascular system and body temperature as well as the endocrine system and aids in digestion Endocrine system regulates release of hormones The HypothalamicPituitaryAdrenocortical axis HPA axis integration of endocrine and nervous system function Neurotransmitters Functions chemical messengers transmit messages between brain cells Other chemical substances in the brain most drugs are a either agonistic or antagonistic 1 Agonists increase activity of neurotransmitter mimics effect 2 lnverse agonists produces effects opposite to neurotransmitter 3 Antagonists inhibit or block production of neurotransmitter or function indirectly to prevent the chemical from reaching the next neuron by closing or occupying the receptors Main types of neurotransmitters 1 Serotonin 5HT5hydroxytryotamine 5HT influences information processing behavior mood and thoughts 0 Dysregulated serotonin may contribute to depression 0 Very low serotonin linked to instability and impulsivity 2 Glutamate 3 Gamma aminobutyric acid GABA 4 Norepinephrine noradrenaline involved in alarm responses and basic bodily processes EX breathing 5 Dopamine implicated in depression amp ADHD 0 Link between excessive dopamine and schizophrenia mesolimbic pathway 0 Link between reduced dopamine and Parkinson s disease path to basal ganglia contributes to problems in the locomotor system such tardive dyskinesia which sometimes results from use of neuroleptic drugs Implications for Psychopathology Treatments for mental health problems may now focus on the brain regions found to be relevant for these problems Psychotherapy also can change brain structure and function medication and psychotherapy are often used together Psychosocial Influences on Brain Structure and Function Baxter believed that psychological treatment was powerful enough tot affect the circuit of the brain directly 0 Treated patients with a cognitive behavioral therapy known to be effective in OCD exposure and response prevention and then repeated brain imaging periodically 0 Discovery brain circuit had be changed normalized by psychological intervention Other areas of research that led to this discovery 0 Placebo effect treatments result in behavioral and emotional changes in patients as a result of psychological factors such as increasing hope and expectations or conditioning effects 0 Drug or active psychological treatments work in terms of changes in brain func on Kennedy treated individuals with major depressive disorder with either a psychological treatment cognitivebehavioral therapy or antidepressant drug venlafaxine CBT facilitated changes in thinking patterns in the cortex that affected the emotional brain Top down originates in cortex and goes down into lower brain Bottom up reach higher levels of cortex last Interactions of Psychosocial Factors and Neurotransmitter Systems Psychosocial factors directly affect levels of neurotransmitters o EX 2 groups of monkeys identically except for their ability to control things in their cages 1 group had free access and the 2 got toystreats only when the 1st group did monkeys were given benzodiazepine inverse agonist effect extreme burst of anxiety monkeys with little control ran to corner of cage and displayed signs of severe anxiety and panic while the other group seems angry and aggressive Psychosocial Effects on the Development of Brain Structure and Function Structure of neurons themselves including the number of receptors can be changed by learning and experience during development EX active rats vs rats who were lazy the active rats had more connections between nerve cells in the cerebellum and grew more dendrites EX2 housing monkeys in larger groups increases amount of grey matter in parts of brain involved in social cognition BEHAVIORAL AND COGNITIVE SCIENCE Conditioning and cognitive processes Early research on classical conditioning 0 Simple associations are learned between 2 things that tend to occur together Later research indicated that it is that simple 0 O This sort of learning is influenced by higherorder cognitive processes EX of research informing our understanding of classical associative conditioning Pavlov would originally have said that if meat powder and a metronome were put together a certain amount of learning would take place Robert Rescorla s 1940 experiment that showed contiguity a variety ofjudgments and cognitive processes combine to determine the final outcome pairing a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus does not result in the same kind of conditioning a Experiment compared to Pavlov if one animal never saw the meat powder except for the 50 trials following the metronome sound whereas meat was brought to the 2 animal many times between the 50 times it was paired with the metronome the 2 animals would learn different things metronome would be less meaningful to the 2 animal b The point you re more able to acquire associations between 2 things if they only occur together EX if your girlfriend wears a certain perfume you will associate the smell with her more than if you girlfriend AND your mom wear that perfume o Other types of learning operant learning Skinner learned helplessness Seligman social learning modeling and observational learning Bandura prepared learning evolutionary advantage Respondentoperant learning repeat behaviors that are followed by good consequences Perform behaviors less that are followed by bad consequences Learned Helplessness Seligman Mairer learned helplessness which occurs when animals encounter conditions over which they have no control lf animals learn their behavior has no effect on their environment they become helpless and give up attempting to cope and seem to develop the animal equivalent of depression Seligman same thing happens with people who are faced with uncontrollable stress in their lives Learned optimism if people faced with stress and difficulty display an optimistic upbeat attitude they are likely to function better psychological and physically Social Learning Bandura organisms do not have to experience certain events in their environment to learn effectively they can learn just as much by observing what happens to someone else in a given situation modelingobservational learning Most of what we learn depends on our interactions with other people around us Prepared Learning Concept we have become highly prepared for learning about certain types of objects or situations over the course of evolution because this knowledge contributes to the survival of species EX even without any contact we are more likely to learn to fear snakes or spiders than rocks or flowers even if we know rationally that the snake or spider is harmless Easier to learn associations that were adaptive for our ancestors to have in the past EX it is easier to acquire a fear of spiders or snakes because it was useful for our ancestors to fear creatures like that in the past in contrast it is less easy to acquire a fear of rabbits because there has been no evolutionary advantage to avoiding rabbits Cognitive Science and the Unconscious There may be a dissociation between behavior and consciousness Implicit memory acting on the basis of experiences that have happened in the past but are not recalled can be selective o EX Anna 09 her behavior occasional paralysis was evidently connected to implicit memories of her fathers death Blind sight some people who are blind can still sense objects that would be in their visual field even if they do not experience sight 0 Normal individuals provided with hypnotic suggestions that they are blind are able to function visually but have no awareness or memory of their visual abilities o This shows a process of dissociation between behavior and consciousness EX of implicit processing Stroop colornaming paradigm participants are slowed down in their performance by words that have emotional significance even if they are not aware of this 0 Quickly shown a variety of words each printed in different color and are asked to name the colors in which the words are printed while ignoring their meaning EMOTIONS The Physiology and Purpose of Fear Fight or flight response alarm reaction that activates during potentially life threatening emergencies Cannon fear activates your cardiovascular system Emotional Phenomena Emotion of fear is a subjective feeling of terror a strong motivation for behavior escaping or fighting and a complex physiological or arousal response Emotion a tendency to behave in a certain way escape elicited by an external event a threat and a feeling state terror and accompanied by a possibly characteristic physiological response The Components of Emotion Emotion is composed of 3 components 1 Behavior basic patterns of emotion differ form one another in fundamental ways emphasize that emotion is a way of communicating between 1 member of the species and another 2 Physiology Cannon viewed emotion as a brain function you may experience various emotions quickly and directly without necessarily thinking about them or being aware of why you feel the way you do Direct connection between these areas and the eyes may allow emotional processing to bypass the influence of higher cognitive processes 3 Cognition Lazarus proposed that changes in a person s environment are appraised in terms of their potential impact on that person EX see someone holding a gun in a dark alley appraise situation as fear BUT a tour guide holding an ancient gun at a museum different appraisal Anger and Your Heart Too much anger cause heart attacks EX of 1 D casual modeling Heart rates during angry and stressful situations drop significantly Emotions and Psychopathology The nature of emotion to elicit or evoke action Action tendency different from affect and mood lntimately tied with several forms of psychopathology EX social anxiety Many types of psychopathology can be boiled down to problematic reactions to our own emotions o EX people with social anxiety don t like the way they feel in social situations so they attempt to avoid these situations in order to not feel that uncomfortable emotion Harmful side of emotional dysregulation o Emotions like anger hostility sadness and anxiety play a key role in psychopathology 0 Some emotions eg chronic hostile arousal amp emotion suppression can have negative health consequences CULTURAL SOCIAL AND INTERPERSONAL FACTORS Voodoo the Evil Eye and Other Fears Fright disorders characterized by exaggerated startle responses and other observable fear and anxiety reactions EX susto describes various anxietybased symptoms only has one cause the individual believes he or she has become the object of black magic or witchcraft Gender Men and women may differ in emotional experience and expression Social Effects on Health and Behavior Frequency and quality important related to mortality disease and psychopathology social relationships see to protect individuals against many physical and psychological disorders Culturally socially amp interpersonally situated 0 Some people think interpersonal relationships give meaning to life and that people who have something to live for can overcome physical deficiencies and even delay death 0 Social relationships facilitate healthpromoting behaviors Problems with social stigma far less social suppose than for physical illness 0 May limit the degree to which people express mental health problems 0 EX concealing feelings of depression gt unable to receive support from fnends 0 May discourage treatment seeking Global Incidence of Psychological Disorders World Health Organization WHO reveal that mental disorders account for 13 of the global burden of disease LIFESPAN DEVELOPMENT Lifespan developmental perspective 0 Addresses developmental changes 0 Influence and constrain what is normal and abnormal From developmental psychopathology O The principle of equifinality the same outcome can be arrived at from different origins must consider several paths to a given outcome 0 EX deliriumcan be caused by a number of separate or related underlying conditions including postoperative states drugs and alcohol urinary tract infections fever and organ failure 0 Multifinality same origin can end up at different outcomes
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