Week 3 Notes (Chapters 3-4)
Week 3 Notes (Chapters 3-4) Bio 1510
Popular in (LS) Bas Life Mch
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nausheen Zaman on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 1510 at Wayne State University taught by Dr. Nataliya Turchyn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 399 views. For similar materials see (LS) Bas Life Mch in Biology at Wayne State University.
Reviews for Week 3 Notes (Chapters 3-4)
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/20/15
Chapter 3 cont 0 Monomers of DNA and RNA nucelotides 0 DNA deoxyribonucleotidesdeoxynucleotides 0 RNA robonucleotides o 3 Parts of DNA I Phosphate Group I Nitrogeneous base I 5Carbon sugar deoxyribose gt RNA ribose 0 Difference between ribose and deoxyribose I OH on 20 in RNA ribose I H on 20 in DNA deoxyribose I Remember deoxy gt without oxygen the deoxyribose on has a H attached to 20 rather than OH group o 5 nitrogen bases I Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine Uracil RNA ONLY 0 Different Nitrogenous Bases o Adenine Guanine Purine I PURe As Gold gt PUR Purine A Adenine G Guanine I Purines Double ring structure 0 Cytosine Thymine Uracil Pyrimidine I CUTthe PIE gt C Cytosine U Uracil T Thymine PIE Pyrimidine I Pyrimidine Single ring structure 0 Adenine Guanine and Cytosine are in DNA and RNA 0 DNA has Thymine while RNA has Uracil 0 Four Different DNA Nucleotides o All have phosphate group 50 sugar deoxyribose in structure 0 Nitrogenous base differs between different deoxyribonucleotides o Guanine gt carbonyl group Adenine gt no carbonyl group o Thymine gt extra carbonyl group methyl group HglNl dGMP dellxyguanusine mtiimlphlilsphate dAMP deoxyadennsine monophosphate O 411coxymboseguanmephosphate deoxyriboseadeninephnsphate NH 0 l N O NH 39l HOl zlt O I dKO HOIOT Ngo 393 o o 0 OH OH dCMP defmycymdine monuph sph te dTMP deuxythymitlline munnphrisphatxe denxyrihoselsymsinephosphate gammy b0se hymm l h spham 0 Four Different RNA Nucleotides All have phosphate and ribose group 4 different nitrogenous bases from DNA 0 O O O Uracil gt pyrimidine I Similar to thymine contains two carbonyl groups I Unlike thymine lacks methyl group I Attached to ribose How to Recognize nucleotide groups 101 1 Determine whether its a deoxyribonucleotideribonucleotide a REMEMBER Dexoribonucleotide gt deoxyribose gt H attached to 20 b REMEMBER Ribonucleotide gt ribose gt OH attached to 2 0 2 Determine whether nitrogenous base is purinepyrimidine a Purine gt double ringed include adenine guanine Guanine carbonyl group Adenine no carbonyl group b Pyrimidine gt single ringed include cytosine thymine uracil OH OH Al sP adem osim monophpsphate riboseadeninephospllmte MHI2 X D l HO lliE O 7 NAB or 0 OHlOlH Clo c31idine momoplmsphate l39ib SEf1 illJEpll05phate 0 Structure of DNA 0 O O OH hydroxyl bonds Cytosine one carbonyl group Thymine Uracil two carbonyl group Thymine has methyl group attached deoxyribose Uracil lacks methyl attached to ribose 0 NH 7 E NH2 HDEREQV N 0 k0 OHOH GEN1P guanosine monophosphate zlfiboseguaninephnsphate O l I N 0 II HO F Q 0H 1 0 L39NPu139idine monophosphate 1ihoseuracilpho sph ate 5 and 3 ends are unique to nucleotides don t exist anywhere else Nitrogenous bases don t form covalent bonds they form Hbonds so they aren t involved in backbones of DNA and RNA Phosphodiester bonds unique to nucleotides refer to slide pic on next page where n free is attached to the 51quot LC of one terminal sugar eleo found in RNA r covalentquot bond in which linlks two adjacent nucleotides extending from the 539 C of the sugarquot of one nucleotide to The sugar phnspha 1E 39 ugmgj ifg sugar of The neighboring backbone consists 39 quot 39 of sugars and phosphate groups where a free OHis attached quot 39 to the 3 C of another terminal sugarquot also found in RNA 0 DNA vs RNA 0 DNA gt double helix RNA gt single helix 0 Nitrogenous bases form Hydrogen bonds 0 Within each strand of DNARNA gt nucleotides held together with phosphodiester bonds I In DNA two strands of deoxynucleotides are held together with HBonds because of nitrogenous bases I Phosphodiester bonds covalent bonds therefore stronger than H bonds in nitrogenous bases 0 Held together with weak bonds because DNA is broken apart to make new DNA 0 Easier to break apart HBonds rather than phosphodiester bonds I RNa lacks HBonds but is capable of creating them during transcription 0 Nitrogenous bases can form either 23 HBonds I Adenine double bonds to ThymineUracil RNA only I Cytosine triple bonds with Guanine I 3HBonds are stronger than 2HBonds 0 General Overview DNA RNA Type of Sugar Deoxyribose Ribose Number of Strands Double Stranded Double Single Stranded Single Helix Helix Nitrogenous Bases Adenine A Guanine G Cytosine C Thymine T Adenine A Guanine G Cytosine C Uracil U Bonds Phosphodiester bond and HBonds Phosphodiester bonds 0 Another Important Nucleotide ATP Adenosine TriPhosphate gt energy currency of the cell AMP Adenosine MonoPhosphate gt used to make RNA very similar to ATP I Has nitrogenous base adeninepurine I Ribose OH group attached to 20 I ATP has three phosphate groups P group energy 0 O O O I AMP has one phosphate group ATP can donate two of their phosphate molecules to other molecules 0 Proteins are the most structurally diverse of all macromolecules Function as enzymes defense systems transport support motion fuction regulators and s torage o What are Protein made of Made of one or more polypeptide chain gt made of amino acids H2N gt amino groupN terminus COOH gt carboxyl groupC terminus All attached to central carbon R group differs between amino acids 20 different R groups 20 different amino O 0000 acids I R group determine chemical properties of amino acids o Linking of Amino Acids Peptide bond formed through dehydration synthesis polar covalent bond Peptide bonds unique to proteins 0 O Cepynght The MeGraw lHill Companies Inc Remission required for repreduetion or display H o H 0 Amino acid Amino acid If If l l H NCCNCC OH pl Ill fl Ill H t H 0 lDiipeptide 0 Special Amino Acids o Proline gt causes polypeptide chain to bend o Methionine gt First amino acid used to make any protein 0 Cysteine gt Contains Sulfide group I S in Sulfide participates in formation of disulfide bridge SS bonds I SS bond gt nonpolar covalent bond I SH bond gt polar covalent bond 0 Divided into three classes I Nonpolar Amino Acids I Polar Amino Acids I Chargedlonizable Amino Acids o Nonpolar Amino Acids o Nonpolar R groups contain H and C atoms gt nonpolar bond 0 R group nonpolar gt entire amino acid nonpolar I Methonine is nonpolar gt SC bond nonpolar o Aromatic acids benzine rings contains six Cs 0 Polar Amino Acids 0 Polar R groups gt O is present in structure I OH CN and 8H bonds polar o Hydrophilic like water 0 Tyrosine only aromatic amino acid in this group contains benzine ring 0 ChargedIonizable Amino Acids 0 Charged R groups I Charge of R group charge of amino acid I charge amino acid basic I charge amino acid acidic I ALL CHARGED AMINO ACIDS ARE POLAR 0 none are aromatic 0 Important Protein Facts 0 Amino acid sequence gt polypeptide assumes a particular shape 0 Shape of protein specific function I Change of shape change in function 0 Shape depends on threefour levels of structure I primary structure I secondary structure I tertiary structure I quaternary structure Folding of Polypeptides 0 Primary structure nonfunctional I Can become a beta pleated sheetalpha helix sheet secondary structure 0 HBonds formed in secondary structure I Secondary structure nonfunctional I HBonds form between amino acids in polypeptide chain between 0 of one amino acid and H in another amino acid 0 Difference between secondaryprimary bond I Secondary gt contains HBonds Primary gt NO HBonds I Both structures have covalent bonds The Final Stages of Folding o Tertiary structure overall 3D shape of polypeptide 0 Forms from interactions between R groups of various amino acids I Polypeptide chain assumes a 3D shape I May form additional bonds van der Waals HBond Disulfide bridge etc I Because of additional bonds polypeptide folds o Quaternary structure arrangement of two or more polypeptide chains subunits in space I Can be held by ionic bonds disulfide bridges etc I Folded proteins functional I Unfolded proteins nonfuctional Bonds that Make Polypeptides Fold 0 Fold because of additional bonds within Amino acid I van der Waals gt attraction between atoms within a short distance because of fluctuating electrical charges I Hydrophobic exclusion gt hydrophobic R groups of amino acids stay together excluding themselves from water 0 Disulfide bridge is strongest polar covalent bond of all bonds 0 Disulfide bridge gt lonic gt Hydrogen gt Hydrophobic exclusion gt van der Waals Importance of Chaperons 0 Proteins that help other proteins fold correctly I many are HSP heat shock proteins 0 HSP proteins expressed when cell is exposed to elevated temperature Denaturation vs Dissociation o Denaturation protein unfolds denatures because of exposure to heatchemicals I Protein has twomore polypeptides gt loses quaternary tertiary secondary structure I Protein has one polypeptide gt loses tertiary secondary structure o In some cases denaturation can be reversed upon removal of denaturing agent renaturation o Lipids Hydrophobic FGTS TPiQIYCET39idES Phospholipids Steroids Cholesterol y Estrogen Testosterone o Fats Triglycerides o Consist of 3 fatty acids linked to one glycerol BC polyalcohol 0 Each fatty acid has hydrocarbon chain acidic carboxyl group 0 Two type of fatty acids I Saturated fatty acid no double bonds between C atoms I Unsaturated fatty acid 1 or more double bonds I Further divided into two groups 0 Monounsaturated 1 double bond between C atoms 0 Polyunsaturated 2more double bonds between carbond 0 Why do unsaturated fats take up more room than saturated fats I unsaturated fats have hydrocarbon chains that have double bonds Double bonds cause the hydrocarbon chains to bend o Cis Fats vs Trans Fats o Unsaturated fats can be cistrans fats o Cis fats have hydrogen atoms present on one side of the double bond I both hydrogens can face up or down on double bonded carbons Trans fats have hydrogen atoms on opposite sides of the double bond Transsaturated fats are bad for us I H bonds in fats increase cholesterol levels in our blood Fats store energy glycogen also stores energy in liver amp muscle cells Saturated fats solid room temp hydroC bonds don t bend allowing them to stay straight and close together I Butter O Unsaturated fats liquids room temp hydroC bonds bend preventing them to pack close together I Olive oil 0 Steroids Cholesterol 0 0 Found in animal cell membranes Makes cell membrane less permeable to water soluble molecules wo it membranes will be more fluid and molecules will pass through cells easier No fatty acids in structure 4 hydroC rings HydroC chain hydrophilic functional group hydroxyl HDL highdensity lipoprotein has more proteins in structure good cholesterol LDL lowdensity lipoprotein has more cholesterol in structure bad cholesterol LDL sticks to veins and arteries blocking them gt arterosclerosis hardeningnarrowing of arteries leads to heart attackstroke I Heart attack when heart muscle is destroyeddead o Steroids Sex Hormones O O Testosterone male sex hormones I promotes development of male sex characteristics growth of body hair increased bonemuscle mass 0 No fatty acids 4 HydroC rings hydroxyl amp carbonyl group I Produced by testes Estrogen female sex hormone I promotes development of female sex characteristics breast growth ovary development I Has two hydroxyl groups instead of one hydrophilic o Phospholipids 0 00000 Form all biological membranes plasmainternal membranes I Plasma surrounds cells I lnternal surrounds organelles Head hydrophilic Tails hydrophobic Amphipathic lipids phospholipids steroids Fats entirely hydrophobic Head hydrophilic bc of phosphate and other groups 0 Micelles and Lipid Bilayers O O Micelles monolayered structures that form by adding detergents lipid like molecules to water I Detergents have only one hydrophobic tail phospholipids have two Phospholipid bilayer more complicated structure where 2 layers form I Hydrophobic heads facing outward I Hydrophobic tails facing inward Chapter 4 Cell Structure 0 Prokaryotic before nucleus 0 Lack nucleus 0 Unicellular o Eukaryotic have nucleus 0 Unicellular eukaryotes some protists yeast unicellular fungi o Multicellular animals plants all fungi gt 2 cells Cells Prokaryotic Eukaryotic ll lProtists Bacteria Archaeans 39 Plants 0 Bacterial Cell 0 Cytoplasm also contains H20 0 Ribosomes only organelle found in bacteria 0 Plasma membrane cell membranes allow bateium to attach to different surfaces Pili V Cytoplasm semifluid matrix that contains Mcw al DNA macromolecules and ribosomes r 39 Ribosomes non membrane bound organelles that are involved in protein synthesis Meleoid region where bacterial DNA is located Plasma membrane y I encloses the cytoplasm y f an Capsule provides n ext I 39 9 39Gelllwalll layer 0 quot r hon 1 protects the cell maintains its shape and p r prevents excessive uptake or loss Of WGTEl Flagellum helps bacterium mo around o Bacteria o Separated into gram positivenegative I Gram positive purple stain 0 Include streptococcus 0 Cell wall contains thick peptidoglycan layer polysaccharide pep des I Gram negative no stainlight pink stain 0 Include E Coil 0 Cell walls contain lipopolysaccharides polysaccharides with lipids other materials covering thin peptidoglycan layer 0 Peptidoglycan targeted by penicillin disrupts crosslinking between peptides that normally reinforce bacterial cell wall 0 Archaeans have no peptidoglycan in cell walls 0 How Do Bacteria Move Around 0 Animal Cell 0 Eukaryotic Nucleus surrounded by nuclear envelope ER has hollow interior gt lumen lnside ER gt worm like proteins Every animal cell has two centrioles I One centrosome microtubule organizing center gt a place where microtubules seperate chromosomes during cell division grow from H202 gt hydrogen peroxide All organelles are surrounded by internal membranes except for ribosomes Have no cell wall OOOO surrounds nucleus Nuclear envelope Nucleus membranebound organelle V I where majority of DNA and Rough endoplasmic 3 r V RNA are found V reticulum JRER membranehound organelle 39 with ribosomes attached 39 fgiou i w rg gsmm membranebound organelle without Rilboso mes non membranebound organelles involved in protein synthesis Centrlioles I made of microtubules Y Eolgi apparatus 39 quot membranebound organelle consisting of stacks of attened sacs Plasma Membrane Lysosome 39 l membranebound vesicl that digests food and old 39 organelles Peroxisome membranebound organelle M l l jc h ndmon I which contains enzymes that m mbmne39boun organelle Wham produce H202 and split it into ma JDNW 01 ATP l5 p mdUCEd HZO an d O 0 Plant Cells 0 Eukaryotic 0 Have animal cell organelles in addition to I Cell wall made of cellulose polysaccharide I Chloroplast I Central vacuole plant cell can survive in dry conditions Have no centrosome with centriole not all have lysosomes Fungi cell walls made of chitin Some protists have cell walls made of cellulose Nucleus Nuclear envelope lRibosomes Rough endoplasmic Smooth endoplasmic 39 I I reticulum REM 1 39 reticulum SEQ N Central vacuole m embrwene bound was i cle that stores H20 and waste products l Peroxisome t 439 h Mi39Tocholndf39li Chloroplast membnonebound organelle where sugars a are ma a Cell wall I Iquot made of cellulose J Adjacent cell wall Plasma embmne o Nucleus 0 Nuclear envelope double lipid bilayer 0 Nuclear pore allows molecules to go through nucleus 0 Chromatin makes up chromosome 0 Nucleolus ribosomal RNA combine with proteins to form small and large ribosomal subunits Nfuclmw lp f39 s leiamn envelope Huclnulus Lo 6 r membrane quot 39 DWIml rmmbrmnu Wupllasmic lamwl39s Nlucluurlv Furu has knit Co Wright 39E39 The Micshaw Hill Compartieslnc Permissia n nequ i bed fa r nepmduc lion or cl ispl ay o Ribosomes o Cell s protein synthesis machinery 0 Each ribosomal subunit is composed of rRNAs and proteins 0 Translation when ribosomes work together with messenger RNA Copyright 3 The MoEr39aw Hil Companies Inc Permission nequirhed 39For39 mapmducf ion on display Large subunit Ribosame 39 Small subunit 0 Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum ER 0 Synthesis and modification of proteins 0 Glycoproteins proteins with short sugar chain produced in lumen of Rough ER 0 White blood cells have high concentration of rough ER cells I Used for antibody production proteins Copwighi39 9 The MchwHill Companies Inc Permission required for reproduction or display Smooth endoplasmic reticulum SEE Rough endoplasmic retricullurn HER 0 Smooth ER Smooth endoplasmic reticulum 0 Synthesis of lipids 0 Storage of Ca2 in muscle cells 0 Detoxification of drugspoisons in liver cells 0 No ribosomes gt can t make proteins gt makes lipids ie fats phospholipids and steroids 0 Cells in ovariestestes abundant in smooth ER Copyright The McErawHill Eomppnies Inc Permission required For reproduction or display Smooth endoplasmic reticulum EEK Rough endoplasmic Intricullum REE o Golgi Apparatus 0 Functions in packaging distribution and additional processing of molecules 0 Cis face removes proteinslipids from ER proteins from rough ER lipids from smooth ER Glycolipids lipids with short sugar chains 0 Lumen in Golgi transformsmodifies proteins inside GA tubes Cownlghf The MoEmw Hill Companies Inc Remission required fee reproduction or display 39 I y n l i Transportquot vesicle Secnetl39ory vesicle 0 Secret Pathway 0 To move proteins RER and lipids SER from ER gt transport vesicle Golgi gt secretory vesicle plasma membrane gt outside of cells 0 Transport vesicle is NOT an organelle membrane bound pocket derived from internal membrane Secretory vesicle derived from Golgi membrane Process of releasing proteins andor lipids from cell secretion Exocytosis to exit cell Secretory proteinslipids released from cell 71Wquot uh OOOO I Uiiilcln whining Fm im39 buds from the rmg quot undo plasmid lmieulum diffuser le reellll hi the ct of u Golgi quot 39 i epm lu in m mdifliled and into mlelis for r m 15hr vesicle fax the Film lming content fa quotH39il quotquotill u39l F M39mnmii Eithullllutll r fluid o Lysosomes o Membrane bound digestive vesicle I enzymes of lysosomes proteins from rough ER modified in Golgi I work best in acidic pH higher H o Lysosome can digest damaged mitochondriaany other damaged organelle 0 Central Vacuole Plant Cells 0 Membrane bound vesicle in plant cells 0 Stores water in plants plants can survive longer in drier conditions I Gains water expands I Loses water shrinks o Tonoplast membrane enclosing central vacuole o Protists have contractile vacuoles regulate H20 balance 0 Food vacuoles digest food
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'