Social Anth Notes Week 2
Social Anth Notes Week 2 Anth 1002( Grinker, Social Anthropology)
Popular in Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Anth 1002( Grinker, Social Anthropology)
Nangesian Lekilit Waters
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nangesian Lekilit Waters on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Anth 1002( Grinker, Social Anthropology) at George Washington University taught by Prof. Grinker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
WEEK TWO FRENCH SOCIOLOGICAL LINEAGE 1981 SURVEY IN LIRE o 600 intellectuals students and politicians asked what living French intellectual has exercised deepest in uence letters and science LeviStraus o to understand Strauss39s in uence one has to understand both Durkheim and Mauss o Emile Durkheim18581917 how do societies stay together 0 mechanical solidarity 0 organic solidarity o societies stayed coherent because there was no differentiation 0 different from mechanical organic are like organs in the sense that they depend on each other 0 parts of a living organism dont act the same so they are not dispensable one cant function without the other 0 everyone ts in somehow in the society 0 in organic solidarity there is some of mechanical solidarity for instance labor unions fraternities and sororities etc o collective conciousnessbut which came rst social categories or the mental faculty to or create apprehend categories 0 a body of belief and sentiments present in societies 0 in mechanical collective conscious is embraced law serves society more than the citizen and the citizen more than the individual Montesquieu Durkheim 0 there are ideas in society that dominate all our intellectual lifeand these ideas are found in religion 0 collective consciousness is the highest form ofthe physic life since its consciousness of the consciousness Marcel Mauss18721950 o Durkheim39s studentnephew wrote an essay quotThe Giftquot 1922 o societies give each other gifts wanted to stir a theoretical idea against his uncles physics based one and the idea that we only do things that are economical 0 social solidarity has to be more of a real life things 0 How can we explain the extraordinary effort to give gifts 0 Mauss39 perspective 0 reciprocity the exchange of goods and services of approximately equal value between two parties 0 generalized reciprocity a type of exchange between closely related people without expectation of returnex parent to child 0 balancedor symmetrical reciprocity a mode of exchange between looselyrelated individuals or groups expectation that something of equal value will be offered in return 0 gift in English means gift in German it means poison poison there39s a level of gifting that we decide on real poison ofthe gift is it compels reciprocity gifts say something Mauss used the word quotdongquot to make gifts not seem ordinary dong has a more spiritual category Mauss39s two main contributions 0 exchange involves more than goods and servicespeope and symbols 0 empirical method in ethnographic research 0 tracing movement of exchanges in society 0 potlatch set of rituals in which people gathered their gifts for competitive giving 0 Potlatch was a North American type of giving 0 also studies the hau hau how does the hau work in the giving of taonga maori example object is not valuable in itself but for what it represents symbolically the object is both desirable and dangerous it has to circulate and not be kept circulation signi ers honor and power and the higher up the circulation the more honor and power the more you give and receive the more respected you are DISCUSSION 0 What is a social fact Durkheim 0 social norms 0 things that society says we should be doing or how we should be living 0 every way of acting xed or not general in society o decisions are colored by society raised in 0 culture widesociety wide 0 going against social facts can lead to some sort of sanction in society Mauss The Gift 0 Potlatch competitive giving 0 writing in a sense to utilitarianism centered on individual liberty o Mauss says the most important thing isn39t based on utilitarianism o obligations to gift giving GIVE RECEIVE RECIPROCATE 0 Mary Douglass IT IS NOT A GIFT UNLESS IT BUILDS SOLIDARITY Its constant and doesnt continue unless you give the gifts to continue the tradition
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