PSYCH1010: Correlation, Cells, and Brain
PSYCH1010: Correlation, Cells, and Brain PSY 1010
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Parsley on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1010 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Paul J Watson (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
PSYCH1010 Introduction to Psychology Dr Watson Wednesday 9915 ETHICS and CORRELATION Ethics is more important than science Some experiments cannot be conducted because manipulating the independent variable could be unethical Experiment and Everything Else 2 categories of studying a hypothesis Correlation scientific study that gives the corelationship between variables 0 How do the variables mesh together 0 These variables cannot be experimented with but they do connect 3 possible results 0 Positive Correlation Direct Relationship Variables mOVe in the same direction as one variable increases the other variable increases Scatter Plot shows the relationship by the best fitting line 0 As X increases Y increases the best fitting line moves up from left to right The strongest positive correlation is 10 The best fit line iS upward sloping Negative Correlation Inverse Relationship Variables move in opposite directions as one variable increases the other variable decreases 10 is the strongest negative correlation coefficient possible The best fit Iine is downward sloping No Correlation No Relationship No best fit line exists data is scattered all across the board and shows no pattern The correlation coefficient for no relation is 0 The best fit line would just be parae to the xaxis Correlation Coefficient a single number that expresses the direction and magnitude of relation between 2 variables The strongest positive correlation is a 10 the strongest negative correlation is 10 Perfect 10 For each step increase in X there is a predictabIe step increase in Y this would be a perfect line rather than a scatter plot No correlation is 0 o The absolute value of a correlation coefficient shows how strong it is not whether it39s positive or negative Never infer causation based on correlation Directionality problem sometimes it is unclear which variable is the cause and which variable is the effect This problem can be eliminated sometimes if one watches events over time to see which variable occurs first Example A D095 happiness Cause money or does money cause happiness Example B Does happiness cause a good marriage or good marriage cause happiness Third variable problem Sometimes there is absolutely no causal relationship at all instead the correlation is PFOdUCGd by a third variable that produces the two variables of interest Ex there are a lot of churches and bars in an area large population is a third variable Monday 91415 NatureNurture Controversy Biological psychology specialty within psychology in subgroup neuropsychomgy that proves the nature aspect MindBody Problem ancient philosophers learned that people had two aspects of person the body and the mind Late 1700s empiricism was used to explore this problem this transitioned from philosophy to neuroscience Divide and conquer Divide Anger and Amygdala to understand the correlation between the mind39s emotion and a piece of the brain RGdUCtionism underlies the neurosciences Basic theme of all modern science Belief that higher levels of functioning will be explained by lower levels of functioning The whole is equal to the sum of the parts Groups are explained by persons persons are explained by cells cells are explained by chemistry and chemistry is explained by physics Sociology is explained by psychology psych is explained by biology biology is explained by chemistry and chemistry is explained by physics Extreme version eliminating reductionism Belief that all scientific talk about mind will be eliminated and be replaced by scientific talk about body Three ultimate assumptions A person is just a body Language would be radically transformed When you39re dead you39re dead A cell is a biological factory Nucleus boss of the cell Contains DNA a chemical memorandum genetic material Cytoplasm cell gel plasm biological machines are contained in this Membrane cell wall active living process that contribute to the work of the cell factory A 09 iS a protein factory Protein long squiggle of amino acids 0 Proteins are tool A C9 is a blOIOglca too factory Builds its own tools and tools for others Wednesday 91615 Brain can explain a person 2 of total body weight 0 Has access to 20 of blood supply the body knows the brain is important Glial cell Latin for quotgluequot they support and hold together the rest of the brain functionality Neurons cells that cause behavior and psychology state most important brain cells although they39re very small Ranges from 1100 microns 1 micron width 11000 millimeter 1 micron length a few microns to a few feet Metaphors about neurons A neuron is an information unit think of it like a telephone television radio etc All information UHitS mUSt receive process and transmit information Dendrites receive Soma process Axon transmit Information within a neuron is an electrical event Charged particles floating in water ions Ions atoms or molecules that have gained or lost an electron negative charge Electricity within a neuron is a story of three potentials Potentials something is on the inside that doesn39t show on the outside and there39s a power being unused Resting potential an electric charge when a neuron is neither receiving or transmitting a message Graded potential electric charge of a neuron when it receives a message Action potential electric charge when a neuron transmits a message Excitation when the axon gets more and more positive to create more spikes Inhibition when a neuron becomes less active due to a more negative charge A Pike Power remains the same frequency changes when excited and inhibited Friday 91815 4 metaphors Cells are biological tool factories Protein A neuron is an information unit structure Information within a neuron is an electrical event Information between neurons is a chemica event Information between neurons is a chemical event Synapse Greek word for quotjunctionquot location where two neurons communicate Presynaptie Membrane transmits information Poet Synaptic Membrane receives information after the junction comes along Gale fluidfilled space between membranes The entire transmission occurs in 12 millisecond Extensions from the axon as it travels down the axon hillock collaterals Terminal button circles on the ends of the axon hillock vesicles are in the sac in the terminal button Vesicles containers of chemicals chemicals are neurotransmitters Neurotransmitter chemical message that passes between neurons Enzymes used in the production of chemicals Receptors are in the dendrite and receive the neurotransmitter 4 step process Action potential Neurotransmitter release Receptor activation Graded potential ions move in or out Think of this like throwing water balloons over the gap and bursting them on the other side to be absorbed The Chemical keys fit into receptor locks across the gap and the receptor is activated Amphetamine speeds synaptic process Causes increase release of 2 neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine Blocks reuptake Two processes end Deactivation breaks up neurotransmitter through enzymes Reuptake taking back a released neurotransmitter into the transmitting side Spits it out and sucks it back in NeuromUSCUtar Junction striated muscle tissue that has receptors that receive neurotransmitter Acetylcholine ACthtChOIine neurotransmitter used at the neuromuscular junction muscle twitches Curare looks like acetylcholine found in jungle wood and is used in poison darts it39s like the wrong key that fits into the neurojunction lock but it won39t come back out progressing paralysis beginning in the lungs causes suffocation Two types of brain tissue Gray matter constellation of somas collection of somas that work together as a unit called nuclei White matter reflects fiber tracts Fiber tracts Collections of axons that connect nuclei together Axons are insulated with myenn 7080 of fat
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