Chapter 3 Notes
Popular in Life Span Development
Popular in Department
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Dosso on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HDFS 230 at a university taught by Candace Philbrick in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views.
Reviews for Chapter 3 Notes
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/20/15
Chapter 3 Notes 0 Body Size 0 Newborns double their weight in 4 months and triple it in a year 0 Norm what s expected or normal Headsparing if needed the body will slow its weight gain but the brain gets an exception and keeps growing as normal 0 Between the ages of 02yrs 0 Brain weight is 75 of what it will be when they are an adult 0 Height is 50 of what it will be when they are an adult 0 Weight is 20 of what it will be when they are an adult Neurons Nerve cells billions of neurons are in the cortex of the brain 0 Cortex The outer six layers 0 The last area of the brain to mature is the prefrontal cortex which controls anticipation planning and impulse control 0 The brain is divided into different parts which each have specializations 0 Ex Visual cortex controls vision Neurons are connected to each other by axons and dendrites the spaces between them are synapses 0 At synapses there is a gap where neurotransmitters transport information to the adjacent dendrites 0 Although an infant is born with billions of neurons there are far fewer dendrites and synapses These develop during the rst couple of years 0 Postnatal brain growth is unusual for most mammals but not humans This is because the pelvis isn t large enough to accommodate a large head 0 Transient exuberance Early dendrite growth Pruning when the dendrite expands and grows unused parts will die off 0 Like pruning a bush that has grown too large 0 This bene ts our brain and increases power because it allows for more in areas needed and less in those not used 0 Infants need stimulation like encouragement playing sensations ect to help with brain development Shaken baby syndrome Shaking a baby because of frustration Which could cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture and could be life threatening o It is considered to be abusive head trauma Selfrighting The ability and need to x a situation 0 Ex Lack of a mother the baby will become attached to someone else 12 of a fullterm newborn s sleep is REM sleep Rapid Eye Movement Cosleeping vs crib sleeping o Crib sleeping is most common in the US o Cosleeping is common in Asian African and Latin American countnes o How a child sleeps as an infant directly relates to how they will sleep later on Sensation a stimuli is sensed by a sensory system like eyes or ears ect Perception This is when a sensation is evaluated and understood Hearing develops in the last trimester of pregnancy Vision is very immature newborns can only see about 2ft in front of them 0 As they experience lights shapes and faces their vision improves rapidly Infants use smell when close to their parents and taste for eating breastmilk 0 An infant is likely to calm themselves by simply smelling their mom or dad Babies are very comforted by their sense of touch Do infants feel pain 0 This is a debatable question that is difficult to answer 0 A baby could be crying for pain orjust an unfamiliar situation sometimes it might just be from the expressions on their parents faces Motor Skills The ability to move Gross Motor Skills The ability to coordinate multiple body parts into a complex movement Babies reach milestones such as turning over siting crawling and walking at their own pace some develop quicker than others but all will eventually reach the same goals Three primary systems in play for developing motor skills 0 Muscle Strength 0 Brain Maturation 0 Practice 0 Fine Motor Skills small movements of the ngers lips or more 0 Such as writing typing sucking or chewing O o 3 goals involved in sensorymotor systems 0 Social interaction 0 Comfort 0 Learning Infant mortality rates have decreased over the last 40 years Malaria kills 1 million individuals in Africa every year Immunization o Familiarizing the body with a particular pathogen so that they can ght it off later on o No Malaria vaccine available 0 Smallpox measles amp Polio vaccines saved thousands of lives and have essentially knocked out the presence of the disease because of herd immunity 0 Immunizations help prevent the disease and the complications associated with them Breasts fed is best 0 The rst couple of days colostrum is secreted it is high in calories and thick 0 Then milk is produced which is sterile always at body temp high in iron and vitamins o Breastfed babies are sick less often because of the antibodies in the milk Less asthma Better vision Higher IQ And much more 0 The only time breast feeding would not be suggested would be if the mother is ill and it could affect the child Stunting being short for their age due to malnutrition o Proteincalorie malnutrition not consuming enough food to sustain normal growth Wasting when a child is severely underweight and height for their age The three ways a malnourished child suffers 0 Brain development 0 Lack of immunity to common diseases 0 Marasmus body tissue wastes away amp Kwashiorkor growth decreases hair thins skin blotches limbs swell Piaget39s stages of Sensorimotor Intelligence Birth 1 month Sucking grasping staring listening 14 months more coordination of re exes 48 months responding to people and objects 812 months adapting and anticipating Pulling on mom s shirt when hungry Object permanence an object still exists when it is no longer in sight Represented by a child searching for a toy that was covered up or hidden behind a wall OOOO 0 1218 months experimentation 0 1824 months thinking before doing remembering what happened last time Mirror neurons seeing something and then mimicking it later Language 0 Babies prefer their mothers language 0 They begin hearing and learning while in the womb 0 They watch facial expressions closely Grammar using all methods of language to communicate 0 Starting with fragments like quotmommy read bookquot 0 Children learn from their caregivers through repetition 0 There are other theories of learning also like from TV 0 The importance of leaning language stems from wanting to be social with family Language acquisition device LAD a mental structure that allows a child to understand components of language Hypothesized by Chomsky