New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week 4

by: Marissa Reyes-Hernandez
Marissa Reyes-Hernandez
Human Anat & Physiology II
Al-Dahwi, Zaineb A

Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Personal Notes from the week!! Good Luck
Human Anat & Physiology II
Al-Dahwi, Zaineb A
Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Human Anat & Physiology II

Popular in Biology

This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marissa Reyes-Hernandez on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 2312 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Al-Dahwi, Zaineb A in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Human Anat & Physiology II in Biology at University of Texas at El Paso.


Reviews for Week 4


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/20/15
Blood is the internal transport system of the body This is more examined then another tissue or organ One whole cycle 0 Heart to arteries to tiny capillaries blood has 02 Capillaries to veins back to heart Need of 02 Heart to Lungs Receives 02 Process starts again The functions of blood are transport regulation and protection Within these functions there are 8 key components Remember them in your know words Blood consists of plasma and formed elements A homogeneous liquid micro level it has both cellular and liquid components Special connective tissue formed elements are found in plasma Lacks collagen fibers but dissolved fibrous proteins become visible When you have a cut paper cut With centrifugal force heavy elements in the blood go down while Plasma goes up in the test tube Erythrocytes the red blood cells that transport oxygen On top of that is the buffy coat which contains leukocytes white blood cells 0 These protect the body in serval ways 0 Platelets cell fragments that help stop bleeding Physical Characteristics and Volume Scarlet is rich in oxgyen Dark red is poor in oxygen Erythrocytes are a major factor in blood viscosity When there is more red blood cells its becomes more viscous and moves slowy And vice versa when there are less cells I Fun fact Blood acounts for 8 of body weight Blood Plasma Mostly water Contians 100 different solutes one of those being electrolytes Na Cl Which outnumber the other solutes Heavy plasma proteins are the most abundant give 8 of plasma weight Produced by the liver with a variety of functions Not used like other cells to become fuel 0 Albumin makes up 60 of plasma protiens 39 Carrier shuttle thru the blood stream I Also a blood buffer 0 Keeps the water in the blood stream plasma osmotic pressure Healthy diet constant homeostatic mechanisms Blood protiens levels drop liver makes more proteins Too acidic acidosis the lungs and kidneys restore plasma39s normal slighty alkanline pH Formed Elements Erythrocytes o Incomplete cell no nuclei or organelles 0 Disc shaped red blood cells Leukocytes 0 Complete cell 0 Spherical white blood cells Platelets o Incomplete cell just cell fragments 0 Look like debris Survive only a few days Don t divide stems cells divide continuously in red bone marrow o Erythrocytes play a crucial role in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport Tiny doughnuts Mature erythrocytes are bound by plasma membrane but are anucleate lack nucleus 0 They are more then bags of hemoglobin RBC Function in gas tranpsportion 0 RBC can deform and spring back into shape 0 Spectrin network of proteins attach to RBC but maintains shape It is deformable and can bend to the shape of the capillaries Then resume shape Complementarity of shape and function 0 Pick up 02 in the lungs and sends it to tissue cells 0 Picks up about 20 of C02 from tissue cells back to the lungs Disc shape is most suited for gas exchange Erythrocyte is over 97 hemoglobin helps with transport of resp gases They don t consume any of the 02 they carry making them excellent carriers 0 Function of Erythrocytes O O Erythrocytes are totally devoted to the transport of respiratory gases Hemoglobin the protein that makes blood cells red connects with oxygen easily Most oxygen bound to hemoglobin Red heme pigment is bond to globin hemoglobin 4 polypeptide chains 2 alpha and 2 beta 0 Both have a iron quotjewelquot in the center The molecule can take 4 02 but the 4 iron atoms can combine I 1 red blood cell 250 million hemoglobin 1 billion ron atoms 1bilion 02 2 reasons why it is a great reason for erythrocytes 0 They don t break into fragments and leak out of the blood stream harder to breathe 0 Would make blood more slow and raise osmotic pressure The loading and unloading of OxygenCarbon Dioxide o 02gt lungsgt tissue cells 0 Deficient 02 goes back into the blood stream I Erythrocytes I to Hemoglobin I Then 02 binds to Iron atoms I This is called oxyhemoglobin 02 rich rich red 0 Body tissue I 02 lets go of iron I Becoming deoxyhemoglobin reduced deoxyhemoglobin 0 Dark red I To tissue fluid then to tissue cells 0 Only 20 opf C02 combines with hemoglobin 0 Which only binds to globins amino acids I Carbaminohemoglobin I Occurs more hemo is in a reduced state I Loading from the tissues I To lungs I Then eliminated from the body 0 Production of Erythrocytes 0 Blood cell formation is Hematopoiesis This occurs in red bone marrow Made of soft network of reticular connective tissue Blood Sinusoids I In adults it is mostly found in the axial skeleton and girdles along with the humerus and femur Whatever type of blood the body is in need of the body will produce 1 da 1 ounce of blood 100 billion new cells every day Hematopoietic stem cell or called hemocytoblast Once the cell becomes a committed cell that is the path it shall take Can be siganled by the appeance 0 Stages of Erythropoiesis When a hematopoietic stem cell descendent call a myeloid becomes a proerthroblast I This is a committed cell Then come the basophilic erythroblasts that divides many times and produces many ribosomes Hemoglobin is synthesized then iron is accumlates becomes A polychromatic erythroblast then a orthochromatic erythoblast When the orthochromatic erythroblast accumulates all of its hemoglobin it ejectes most of its organelles I The nucleus is pinched off then allowing the cell to collapse inwards Resulting in a reticulocyte the name still contains reticulum network of clumped ribosomes I This whole process takes about 15 days They are filled to the point of bursting with hemoglobin when entering the blood stream to begin oxygen transport 2 days between Reticulocyte and erythrocyte R must fully mature 0 Regulation and Requirements for Erythropoiesis 0 Having to little E can lead to tissue hypoxia 02 deprivation 0 Having too much makes the blood undesirably viscous O Maintianing balance new cells are produced 2 million per second 0 This depends on proper nutrients Hormonal Controls I Erthyropoietin EPO the glycoprotein hormone stimulates the formation of erthrocytes I usually a small amount if going through the blood kidneys play a key role major role in EPO production 0 The kidneys can sometimes become hypoxic 02 deficient because sometimes the enzymes are not able to perform their function to degrade the hypoxia inducible factor HIF 0 As HIF accumulates it speeds up the sunthesis and release of erythropoietin I Reasons for drops in 02 in blood that triggers EPO o Smaller numbers due to hemorrhage or excessive RBC destruction 0 Insufficient Hemoglobin per RBC 0 Reduced availavility of oxygen as might occur at high levels in air or during pneumonia I Note that it is not the number of erythrocytes in blood that controls the rate of erythropoiesis Instead controls is based on their ability to transport enough oxygen to meet tissue demands I Bloodborne erythropoietin stimulates red marrow cells that are already committed to becoming erythrocytes causing them to mature more rapidly o Hypoxia does not activate bone marrow directly it stimulates the kidneys which in turn provide the hormonal stimulus that activates the bone marrow 0 Male sex hormone also helps out the kidneys production of EPO NOT SEEN IN FEMALES 0 May be the reason for higher RBC counts and hemoglobin in males Dietary Requirements I Raw material required is Erythropoiesis are amino acids lipids and carbohydrates Iron is also essential for hemoglobin synthesis 0 Approximately 65 of body39s iron supply is hemoglobin 0 Rest stored in sleep liver and the last bone marrow 0 Free ron ions are toxic Fe2 Fe3 so then the body stores them in protien iron complexes like Ferritin and Hemosiderin o In blood iron is loosely bound to transferrin and developing erythrocytes take up iron as needed to form hemoglobin 0 Average loss of Iron is 17 mg in women and 09 in men 0 Fate and Destruction of Erythrocytes 0 Life span is 100 to 120 days They cannot grow divide or synthesize new protiens They begin to degenerate They get stuck in the spleen the quot blood cell graveyardquot Marcophages eat the dying erthrocytes the Heme is split from the globin The Core iron is recovered and then store for reused and transported to ferritin or hemosiderin The heme is degraded to bilirubin that is a yellow pigment released into the blood and bind to albuminm for transport Liver then picks it up and seceretes t into Bile which is metabolized into urobilinogen Most of the pigment leaves the body in feces as stercobilin The Globin is metabolized into amino acids and released back into circulation o Erythrocyte Disorders 0 Most erythrpcyte disorders can be classified as anemia or polycythemia O Anemia Lacking Blood I The blood 02 levels are too low to support normal metabolism 0 More of a disorder then a diease I People can become fatigued often pale short of breath and chilled 0 Blood loss 0 Hemorrhagic anemia is caused by blood loss 0 Stab wound or undiagnosed bleeding ulcer 0 Once the problem is fixed normal erythropoietic mechanisms replace the lost blood cells The clotting factors are plasma proteins Clotting will take place on top of platte plug Incompatible blood Transfusion Recipient Type A Donor Type B A AG on RBC B AG on RBC Anti B plamsa Anti A plasma Anti b attacks B AG on Donors RBC 0 Agglutimation of donor39s RBC 0 Rupture of Donoro RBC or destr by phayg OOOO Transfusion Reaction More ip Agglutination RBC 90 hemo 0 Release of Hb in recipient39s citculation Passing into kidney Tubules 0 Acute Renal Failure 0 What to do Fluids Summ To remove the hemog out of the kidney 0 Recpi s going to have attack the donors blood 0 Anti A in Donor39s plasma can bind and attack A Ags on Recipent39s plasma 0 NOT SERIOUS 0 Because Donor39s Anit A Abs become so diluted in Recipeient39s plasma 0 DO Not cause significant reaction Patient RH doesn t have Rh anti 0 Recives RH blood There will be no imm Reaction You have enough time for the anit bodies to form If a second time wrong blood will have a imm Reaction Anti blood in blood steam Conditon that you have a obvi condition a Erythroblastosis Fetails Mom is Rh the first baby is Rh no problem Placnt detment blood from the baby goes into the mother during birth After birth Anit Rh antibodies reacting against the babys blood Condition not diganosed The 2nd baby will end up with brain damage RBC resp for transport of oxgyen hypia Brain damage due to this How to treat either before or shortly atfter the first baby Rhogama is given to the mother contians anit bodies against RH factor Attacking the RH factor preventing the activition of the anit bodies agaisnt the Homestis Married couple are required to get blood tested OOOO


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.