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Psych 361, Week 9

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Psych 361, Week 9 Psych 361

GPA 3.12

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Chapter 5 & 6: Early Childhood Part II - The Mind (Cognitive Development) Part III - Psychosocial Development
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Carrie Cuttler
Class Notes
Psych 361, developmental, Cuttler, piaget, cognitive, Psychosocial, early childhood
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Tuesday March 15, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 03/15/16
3.7.16   •   Theory  of  Mind   o   Persons  theory  of  what  other  people  might  be  thinking   §   Emotions,  goals,  intentions,  desires,  knowledge,  beliefs,  etc.   o   It  requires  the  realization  that  people’s  thoughts  are  unique  and  personal   o   It  develops  considerably  around  age  4     §   Better  at  lying  once  theory  of  mind  has  developed     §   Children  with  autism  have  trouble  with  TofM  (can’t  relate  to  others  or   themselves)   o   The  development  of  Theory  of  Mind  is  influenced  by:   §   Language  ability  –  those  with  more  advanced  language  ability  develop  it   earlier   §   Siblings:  people  with  siblings  tend  to  have  better  theory  of  mind   •   To  figure  out  motives     §   Brain  maturation  –  theory  of  mind  is  associated  with  prefrontal  cortex   maturity     §   Culture  –  individuals  in  collectivist  cultures,  like  China,  develop  TofM   earlier     •   Chinese  children  have  been  found  to  be  about  6  months  ahead   than  children  from  the  U.S.  in  TofM   Is  early  childhood  a  critical  or  sensitive  period  for  language  development?  Sensitive   •   Language   o   Average  2  year  old  knows  500  words;  the  average  6  year  old  knows  more  than   10,000  (so  they  are  learning  6-­‐7  new  words  per  day!)     o   Fast  mapping  –  speedy  and  imprecise  way  in  which  children  learn  new  words  by   tentatively  placing  them  in  mental  categories  according  to  the  words  perceived   meaning     §   Categorical  link  new  words  based  on  context  they  are  used   •   Language  Strengths  and  Weaknesses   o   Nouns  (names  of  objects  and  people)  are  easy   o   Time,  place,  metaphors,  articles  (a,  an,  the)  are  difficult     §   10  min,  come  here,  an  elephant   o   basic  word  order  understood  by  age  2  (subject/verb/object)     §   I  play  with  trucks  instead  of  “Trucks  I  play  with”   o   Plurals,  possessives,  past  tense  used  by  age  3   §   “My  blanket,”  “my  blankets”     o   Overregularization  –  applying  grammar  rules  even  when  exceptions  occur   §   He  “goed”  to  the  store   §   Foots     •   Improving  Language   o   SES  is  related  to  language   §   Lower  SES  shows  impoverished  language  because  they  spend  less  time   speaking  to  their  children;     §   Not  a  direct  result  from  low  SES,  its  more  of  an  interaction  problem   o   Spending  more  time  speaking  with  children   o   Reading  to  children   §   Expose  them  to  as  much  language  as  possible!   •   TV   o   TV  is  typically  considered  detrimental  to  language  learning  (because  the  more   time  spent  in  front  of  a  TV,  the  less  time  you  are  interacting  with  your  parents).   However,  …     o   Watching  Sesame  Street  is  related  to  many  positive  outcomes  including…   §   Larger  vocabularies   §   Alphabet  recitation   §   Better  prepared  for  school   §   Reading  words   •   Early  Childhood  Education   o   Most  3-­‐5  year  old  in  developed  nations  attend  some  type  of  school  or  preschool   o   Programs  differ  in  philosophy  and  goals   o   Three  main  types  are:   §   Child-­‐centered   •   Inspired  by  Piaget  and  Vygotsky;   •   Children  are  free  to  play  and  explore  with  guidance  (Piaget)   •   Children  are  given  a  variety  of  activities  and  follow  their  own   interest  rather  than  adult  direction  (Vygotsky)   •   Montessori  Schools  –  emphasize  pride,  confidence  and   achievement  through  self-­‐directed  learning  activities     o   Children  attending  these  schools  have  more  advanced  pre-­‐ reading  skills,  math  skills  and  Theory  of  Mind.  They  have   greater  concern  with  fairness,  solving  conflict  and   cooperation     •   Reggio  Emilio  –  children  are  encouraged  to  master  advanced  skills   personalized  learning.  Strong  appreciation  of  the  arts     §   Teacher-­‐directed   •   These  programs  stress  preparation  for  school   o   Teach  children  letters,  numbers,  shapes,  write  name   o   Teach  how  to  sit  and  listen  quietly     2   o   Teachers  direct  the  events  of  the  day  which  are  all   scheduled   o   Praise,  reinforcement  and  time-­‐outs  are  used  to  shape   behavior   •   Children  in  teacher-­‐directed  programs  display  more  stress   behaviors,  less  confidence,  prefer  less  challenging  tasks  and  are   less  advanced  in  motor,  academic,  language  and  social  skills     3   3.9.15   •   Intervention  Programs   o   Head  Start  –  a  free  federal  program  for  low-­‐income  children  (since  1965)   §   Preparing  children  for  school   §   Nutritional  services  (healthy  and  balanced  diet)     §   Health  services  (i.e.  immunizations,  remind  parents  that  it  is  important  to   take  children  to  the  dentist)   §   Parent  involvement  (serve  of  policy  councils,  help  with  planning,  attend   programs  on  parenting  and  child  development   §   FREE!   o   Programs  vary  in  quality  and  outcomes  but  generally  improve  literacy  and  math   skills,  oral  health  and  parental  responsiveness     o   Less  likely  to  be  placed  in  special  ed  classes,  more  likely  to  graduate  high  school     •   High  Quality  Programs   o   Low  Child-­‐Teacher  Ratio:  each  teacher  should  be  responsible  for  a  max  of  8  to  10   children  and  a  max  of  14  to  20  in  a  class  (with  2  teachers)   o   Activities  –  the  curriculum  is  planned  but  children  select  their  own  activities,   working  in  small  groups  or  individually  with  a  teacher  facilitating  activities   o    Qualifications  and  Licensing  –  teachers  should  be  well  trained,  have  a  degree   with  specialization  in  early  childhood  development  or  education  and  facility   should  be  licensed  by  the  state   §   should  be  sensitive  to  child’s  emotional  needs     o   Physical  Space  –  classroom  should  be  divided  into  richly  equipped  activity  areas   and  there  should  be  fenced  outdoor  space  with  play  equipment     §   i.e.  Book  corner,  music  area,  outdoor  space  (slides,  sandbox,  etc.)  that  is   fenced   o   Parental  involvement  –  should  be  encouraged   Part  III:  Early  Childhood  –  Psychosocial  Development   ClickerQ:  According  to  Erikson,  the  crisis  of  early  childhood  (ages  3-­‐6)  is:  Initiative  vs.  Guilt   •   Erikson’s  Psychosocial  Stage  Theory   o   Initative  vs.  Guilt  (3  to  6  years)   §   Initiative:  suggests  a  sense  of  purposefulness;  eager  to  tackle  new  tasks,   join  in  activities  and  discover  what  they  can  do   •   Patient,  reasonable  adult  guidance  can  cultivate  this  feeling   §   Guilt:  overly  strict  conscious  that  causes  child  to  feel  too  much  guilt   because  they  have  been  threatened,  criticized  and  punished  excessively   by  adults   •   Self-­‐Concept   o   A  person’s  understanding  of  who  he/she  is,  incorporating  self-­‐esteem,  physical   appearance,  personality  and  various  personality  traits,  such  as  gender  and  size   §   Pre-­‐schoolers’  self-­‐concept  consists  of  observable  characteristics,   possessions  and  everyday  behaviors   •   “I’m  Tommy,  my  favorite  toy  is  my  red  truck  and  I  like  school!”   §   Warm,  sensitive  parents,  a  secure  attachment  allows  children  to  make   choices  and  praising  them  for  their  work  help  children  develop  a  positive   self-­‐concept   •   Allowing  them  to  help  load  the  dishwasher,  start  the  laundry,   thanking  them  for  their  help  allows  them  to  develop  positive  self-­‐ concept   •   Young  children  think  they  are  smart,  strong,  good-­‐looking  and   have  high  self-­‐esteem  because  they  have  deluded  competence   but  its  okay  because  it  encourages  them  to  try  new  things   •   Intrinsic  vs.  Extrinsic  Motivation   o   Intrinsic  –  a  drive  to  pursue  a  goal  that  comes  from  INSIDE  a  person  (from  a  need   to  feel  smart  or  competent  or  a  sense  of  enjoyment)   §   Pursuing  sports  because  it  makes  them  feel  good  to  be  outside  and   interact  with  friends;  they  feel  good   o   Extrinsic  –  drive  to  pursue  a  goal  that  arises  from  the  need  to  have  one’s   achievement  rewarded  from  an  outside  source   §   Parents  want  them  to  pursue  sports  and  they  do  it  because  they  want  the   praise  from  that  parents;  others  make  them  feel  good   o   By  nature,  children  tend  to  be  intrinsically  motivated;  whether  or  not  people   praise  them   •   Experiment  on  Motivation     o   Preschool  children  where  given  markers  and  paper  and  instructed  to  make  a   drawing.  They  were  randomly  assigned  to  one  of  three  groups     §   Group  1  -­‐  Given  no  award  for  their  drawings     §   Group  2  –  Told  they  would  receive  an  award  for  their  drawings  before   they  had  even  drawn  anything     §   Group3  –  Given  an  award  for  their  drawings  after  they  were  completed   but  they  were  not  told  in  advance  that  they  would  receive  this  award.     What  do  you  think  the  researches  found?    B.  Children  who  received  the  award  after  the   task  (but  who  were  not  told  in  advance  that  they  would  receive  an  award)  were  more   2   likely  to  want  to  do  the  task  again  and  C.  Children  who  were  not  promised  or  given   awards  were  more  likely  to  want  to  do  the  task  again.   •   Fostering  Intrinsic  Motivation   o   Best  not  to  promise  rewards  for  accomplishments   o   Best  to  praise  children  for  their  effort  rather  than  the  outcome  or  their  abilities   §   “You  tried  hard!  And  you  did  it!”  Rather  than,  “You  are  so  smart,  you  did   it!”     •   Teaches  them  their  effort  rather  than  their  natural  skills  paid  off   and  encourages  them  to  persist  in  challenging  tasks   §   Children  who  are  praised  for  being  smart  are  less  likely  to  persevere  in   challenging  tasks  because  they  want  to  continue  to  feel  smart  and   receive  praise   •   Emotional  Development   o   Emotional  Regulation:  the  ability  to  control  when  and  how  emotions  are   expressed   §   Many  factors  contribute  to  the  development  of  emotional  regulation   including:   •   Development  of  connections  between  the  limbic  system  (involved   in  emotion)  and  prefrontal  cortex  (involved  in  impulse  control)   •   Language  and  ability  to  verbalize  emotions   o   Children  who  can’t  verbalize  emotions  are  more  likely  to   hit  and  roll  around  in  anger   •   Parents  –  warm,  patient  parent  who  model  good  emotional   regulation,  recognize  and  accept  their  child’s  emotions  and  give   strategies  for  controlling  emotions   o   Parent  should  not  flip  out  screaming  when  child  flips  out   because  child  will  see  that  this  is  how  everybody  reacts   o   Give  strategies  to  handle  negative  emotions  and  do  it  with   them  (i.e.  take  deep  breaths)     •   Culture  –  different  cultures  value  and  discourage  different   emotions   o   U.S.  emotional  regulation  of  fear  is  taught  to  be   suppressed   o   Gender  –  girls  tend  to  be  more  advanced  in  emotional   regulation  than  boys   •   Externalizing  and  Internalizing  Problems   o   Externalizing  –  difficulty  with  emotional  regulation  that  involves  expressing   powerful  feelings  through  uncontrolled  physical  or  verbal  outbursts  (i.e.  kicking,   screaming,  throwing  things,  etc.)   o   Internalizing  –  difficulty  with  emotional  regulation  that  involves  turning  one’s   emotional  distress  inward  (feeling  excessively  guilty,  ashamed  or  worthless     3     •   Prosocial  Behaviors   o   Actions  that  are  helpful  and  kind  but  have  no  obvious  benefit  to  the  person   performing  the  action  (i.e.  expressing  concern,  offering  to  share,  holding  the   door  open)   §   First  become  evident  in  children  ages  2-­‐3   §   Do  not  have  theory  of  mind  but  do  understand  enough  about  emotions   to  respond  in  a  supportive  and  systematic  and  sympathetic  way   §   Parental  behavior  contributes  to  development  of  child’s  prosocial   behavior   •   Explaining  consequences  of  actions  on  others  (actions  have   consequences  and  if  you  hurt  someone,  you  should  feel  bad  and   apologize)   •   Loving  and  warm   •   Reinforce  prosocial  behavior  (“You  are  so  helpful!)   •   Model  prosocial  behavior  (holding  doors  for  others,  don’t  dismiss   other  children;  acknowledge  other  kids,  lets  make  sure  other  kid   is  okay)     4   3.11.16   •   Antisocial  behaviors   o   Antisocial  behaviors:  actions  that  are  deliberately  hurtful  or  destructive   o   Instrumental  aggression  –  aimed  at  gaining  something  that  someone  else  has   (more  egocentric  than  antisocial)     o   Reactive  aggression  –  an  impulsive  retaliation  for  hurt  (indicates  lack  of   emotional  regulations   o   Relational  aggression  –  non-­‐physical  acts  aimed  at  harming  social  connections   o   Bullying  aggression  –  unprovoked  repeated  physical  or  verbal  attacks  (sign  of   poor  emotional  regulation)   •   Gender  development   o   18  to  24  months  –  children  develop  their  gender  identity  and  begin  to  show   preference  for  sex-­‐stereotyped  toys     §   by  24  months,  they  can  categorize  men  and  women   o   3  years  –  preference  for  same-­‐sex  friends,  knowledge  of  sex-­‐roles   o   3-­‐4  years  –  assign  stereotypic  occupations,  toys  and  activities  to  genders     o   4  years  –  gender  stability  occurs  (understanding  that  people  stay  the  same   gender  throughout  their  entire  lives)   o   5  years  –  associate  certain  personality  traits  with  males  or  females   o   6  years  –  adopt  strict  gender  rules  and  understand  gender  constancy   (recognition  that  gender  remains  that  same  even  though  appearance  may   change)   ClickerQ:  Which  od  you  think  influence  the  development  of  gender  differences  the  most?  A  mix   of  biological  and  societal  factors     •   Biological  Basis  of  Gender   o   Sex  differences  –  biological  differences  between  males  and  females   o   SRY  Gene  –  directs  development  of  male  genitals   o   Hormones  –  testosterone  and  estrogen  affect  development  of  body,  brain  and   behavior   §   Block  release  of  testosterone,  animals  display  more  characteristics  of   female  animal  and  in  vice  versa   o   Monkey  research  –  male  monkeys  preferred  wheeled  toys   §   People  think  that  human  boys  and  girls  prefer  gendered  toys  due  to   socialization,  however,  this  monkey  research  pokes  holes  into  this   assumption   o   David  Reimer  –  male  raised  as  a  girl  continued  to  have  male  gender  identity     §   Committed  suicide  at  the  age  38   §   Brother  developed  schizophrenia  after  having  a  psychotic  break  after   learning  at  14  what  his  parents  had  done  to  his  brother   o   Evolutionary  theory  –  sex  differences  have  evolved     §   Male  ancestors  competed  for  mates  (dominance),  female  ancestors   reared  children  (compliance)  naturally  selected   •   Social  Basis  of  Gender   o   Behaviorism  –  children  are  rewarded  for  “gender-­‐appropriate”  behavior  (and   may  be  ridiculed  by  their  peers  for  “gender  inappropriate”  behavior)  and  parents   model  these  behaviors   o   Will  and  Colleagues  (1976)  –  found  mothers  treated  infants  differently  based  on   their  gender  stereotype   §   People  interacted  with  infants  based  on  the  way  they  were  dressed   instead  of  what  gender  they  actually  were  (“Beth”  was  given  a  doll  and   smiled  at,  “Ben”  was  given  a  train)   §   Smith  and  Lloyd  (1978)  –  found  that  babies  dressed  in  blue  were  verbally   encouraged  to  participate  in  more  physical  play,  regardless  of  the  gender   of  the  baby     •   Play   o   Erikson  regarded  play  as  a  means  through  which  young  children  learn  about   themselves  and  their  social  world   o   “Play  is  really  the  work  of  childhood”  –Fred  Rogers     o   Solitary  play  –  playing  on  one’s  own   §   Children  can  be  happy  in  solitary  play     §   Parents  did  not  play  with  children  in  the  previous  generations   o   Onlooker  play  –  watching  other  children  playing   o   Parallel  play  –  playing  side-­‐by-­‐side  other  children   2   §   Not  interacting  with  each  other   o   Associative  play  –  pursuing  own  activities  but  engaging  in  spontaneous  but  short-­‐ lived  social  interactions   o   Cooperative  play  –  playing  together  to  accomplish  a  goal   §   Play  house  or  classroom  together   o   Peers  are  the  best  playmates!  (Other  children)   o   Sociodramatic  play  –  children  act  out  social  roles   §   Helps  them  learn  how  to  explain  their  ideas,  practice  emotional   regulation,  develop  their  self-­‐concept  and  develop  social  skills   §   Might  pretend  to  experience  different  emotions   o   Rough  &  tumble  and  active  play  –  children  wrestle  and  play  fight     §   Helps  develop  muscle  strength,  coordination,  control  (gross  motor  skills)   §   Also  believed  to  help  children  learn  to  regulate  emotion  and  practice   social  skills     •   Might  help  antisocial  behavior  because  they  test  their  limits   together     3  


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