Week 3 Lectures - Principles of Human Anatomy
Week 3 Lectures - Principles of Human Anatomy Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy
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Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Dorsey on Sunday September 20, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 103, Principles of human Anatomy at University of Indianapolis taught by Justin Maiers in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Principles of human anatomy in Biology at University of Indianapolis.
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Date Created: 09/20/15
Principles of Human Anatomy BIO 103 Notes from 15 September 2015 Articulations Joint Surfaces Things you should know by the end of these notes 1 Know how the different types ofjoints are classified 2 Know the components of a synovial joint and how they are different than other types ofjoints 3 Understand the different types of movement that synovial joints perform Going over the Basics 0 Articulations 9 places of contact between bones bones and cartilage or bones and teeth 0 The last one is talked about very briefly and is not commonly talked about so it is not as critical for you to know details about 0 9 study of joints Classification ofJoints by Structure 0 Based on the space between bones and type of connective tissue that is holding the bones of the joint together 0 Three types 0 9 bones held together by dense connective tissue 0 9 bones held together by cartilage o 9 bones joined by ligaments with fluidfilled joint cavity separating bone surfaces I Main one that we will talk about Fluid filled sack is called the Classification ofJoints by Movement 0 Joints can be classified functionally based on the extent of movement that they permit 0 Three general classifications o 9 immobile joints can be fibrous or cartilaginous joints I Ex Bones of the skull along suture lines o 9 freely mobile joints ball and socket joints all synovial joints full motion I Ex Hip where the femur meets the pelvis o 9 slightly mobile can be fibrous or cartilaginous joints limited motion I Ex Vertebrae or the pubic symphysis Side Note 0 There is an inverse relationship between stability and mobility 0 When mobility increases stability decreases I A decrease in stability causes the joint to be more prone to injury Fibrous Joints Connected by 0 Have no joint cavityno bursa o Immobile or only slightly mobile 0 Can wiggle a little bit but not very much 0 Movement depends on length of connective tissue fibers 0 Most common types 0 weird one immobile joint I Between tooth and jaw I Periodontal membrane holds tooth o immobile joint between bones of skull I Dense regular CT fibers connect bones I Joints are I Point where two bones meet but is not an actual moving joint 0 joints where articulating bones are joined by long strands of dense regular connective tissue I Membrane is called an and allows for slight mobility I Ex Radius and ulna AND tibia and fibula I Classified as amphiarthroses Primaryfunctiom Cartilaginous Joints 0 Made up of either hyaline cartilage or fibrocartilage and found between bones 0 Lack a joint cavity 0 No bursa capsule o Immobile or slightly mobile 0 Eg cartilage of the ribs move slightly so breathing is possible 0 Two types 0 bones joined by hyaline cartilage I Immobile synarthroses I Eg epiphysealgrowth plates and joints between rib and sternum o pads of fibrocartilage between articulating bones I Resist compression and act as shock absorbers I Allow for slight mobility amphiarthroses I Eg pubic symphysis and intervertebral discs Svnovial Joints BIG MAIN POINT 0 Unlike the previous two categories ofjoints the bones of the synovial joint are separated by a space called the joint cavity 0 Includes most of the joints in the body 0 Le knee elbow shoulder etc o Classified as freely mobile 0 Basic features include o I Doublelayered joint capsule o outer layer 0 Dense connective tissue 0 Strengthens joints to prevent bones from being pulled apart 0 Takes the most of the brunt of the damage 0 Synovial membrane inner layer 0 Areolar connective tissue 0 Covers internal joint surfaces not covered by cartilage o I Biggest generator of synovial fluid 0 I Space between articulating bones I Lined by synovial membrane and secretes synovial fluid I Filled with fluid 0 I Viscous oily substance within the joint cavity I Functions 0 articular cartilage on articulating surfaces from articular cartilage 0 Le any regeneration ability that goes to the cartilage o I Hyaline cartilage on bone surface at the joint I Avascular slow to regenerate and slow to heal if it does at all I Functions 0 during movement 0 to absorb joint compression 0 o articulating ends of bone 0 I Connect one bone to another one I Stabilize strengthen and reinforce synovial joints I For stability and keeping things in place I The following two bits are nice to know but are not exactly necessary to know 0 Extrinsic ligaments physically separate from joint capsule o Intrinsic ligaments thickening of the articular capsule itself includes ligaments outside and within the joint capsule o I but does go throughout the joint I Innervate and supply articular capsule and ligaments I Nerves detect painful stimuli report on movement and stretch o Accessory Structures 0 saclike structure that contains synovial fluid I ESSENTIAL TO KNOW I Alleviates friction Movements of Synovial Joints 0 Gliding motion movement in which two opposing surfaces slide past each other in almost any direction 0 Any which way 0 For the picture think of a princess wave moves around to any direction I looking at the bones in the wrist 0 amount of movement is slight o seen in joints between carpals wrist bones and tarsals ankle bones o Angular motion increases or decreases angle between two bones o movement in an anteriorposterior plane that decreases the angle between bones I Closes off angle that makes it shorter moves forward concerning neck bones 0 Ex Moving chin so it touches your chest 0 movement in anteriorposterior plane that increases angle between articulating bones I Ex Moving head from chin against chest to upright 0 joint extended more than 180 degrees and going beyond the mechanical ability of the bone and causing damage 0 trunk of the body moving in coronal plane laterally I Occurs between vertebrae in the cervical and lumbar region o lateral movement of a body part away from the midline I Think of ABDUCTING a child please done actually do it that would be bad are you taking it away or bringing it back Abduction is moving away from the midline o lateral movement of a body part towards midline o the distal end of a limb or digit moves in a circle I Continuous sequence of flexion abduction extension and adduction o Rotational Motion bone pivots on its own longitudinal axis 0 to the outside turns anterior surface of bone laterally back towards the midline turns anterior surface of bone medially o 0 hand position with palms down 0 hand position with palms up M L I Think of Oliver Twist asking for more soup 0 Special Movements do not readily fit other functional categories a 1 it occurs at specific joints 0 inferior movement of a body part I Ex Movement of the mandible while opening the mouth I Moving down from normal position 0 superior movement of a body part I Ex Movement of mandible when closing the mouth 0 ankle joint bent so the dorsum superior surface of foot moves toward the leg I Ex When digging in your heels and toes point up 0 ankle joint bend to the dorsum pointed inferiorly I Ex Pointing your toes I Palmer flexion for the hand 0 sole of foot turns medially or inwards I Big toe is up 0 sole of foot turns laterally or outward I Big toe is down towards the ground 0 Not many body parts do the following two movements I anterior movement from anatomic position I winquot sail man 0 Ex Jutting jaw anteriorly I posterior movement from anatomic position 0 Ex Pulling in jaw posteriorly o movement of thumb across the palm towards the fingers I Enables the thumb to grasp objects I Primates and very few other creatures can do this I Pads of pinky and thumb can touch 0 opposition movement or return to anatomical position Diseases and Breakdown ofJoints o Osteoarthritis o Cartilage breaks down and starts to erode I Happens to pretty much everyone as they get older and is a result of general wear and tear on the bones o Rheumatoid Arthritis 0 Autoimmune disease where the joint capsule breaks down the bones 0 Joint capsule becomes swollen and toxic to the bones o Eburnation 0 When two bone rub against each other so much that they quotpolishquot each other and become shiny from all the wear and tear Principles of Human Anatomy BIO 10305 Notes for 16 September 2015 Bones of the Human Skeleton This section is mostly just introducing the quotneed to know bones to you If there is specific things to know about a bone I ll clue you in Axial Skeleton Things you should know after going over the Axial Skeleton 1 Know the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton 2 Know the bones of the skull 3 Understand the differences in cervical thoracic and lumbar vertebrae 4 Know the difference between true false and floating ribs The Skull 0 Lacrimal bone deals with tear ducts o Zygomatic cheek bones o Mandible jaw bone 0 Main ones to know are 0 Parietal o Occipital o Zygomatic o Frontal o Maxilla o Mandible 0 Side note 0 Don t worry about the nasal concha or palatine bone 0 Nasal concha and ethmoid both deal with sense of smell 0 Ethmoid is mostly just open space because the olfactory nerves go through there 0 Sphenoid makes up the space that bridges the brain to where the face is 0 Each bone of the skull grows individually and then fuses together as a child matures o The skull is a lot of empty space so that it can protect its insides 0 Introducing the cavities but we don t need them for the test I Nasal cavity I Oral cavity I Cranial cavity I Orbital cavity 0 Cranial abnormalities 0 Cultural modification in some cultures the longer your skull is the more money and status that you have I Done on purpose I Boards are tied to the skull when a child s skull is still working on fusing together 0 Hydrocephaly fluid builds up in the skull and causes the bones to bulge outwards I After the bones fuse the fluid buildup destroys brain mass in order to make more room for the fluid The Vertebral Column 0 Made up of o 7 cervical vertebrae I Two specialized cervical vertebrae 12 thoracic vertebrae 5 lumbar vertebrae Sacrum I Coccyx tail bone is on the end of the sacrum o Specialized I Atlas C1 at the base of the skull and holds it up I Axis C2 helps with rotation and turning the head 0 Cervical vertebrae has transverse foramen two holes on the side for nerves and blood vessels I Dead giveaway for identification 0 Smaller because they hold the least weight o A rib can attach and has a little bump on the side costal facet 0 Looks a little like a giraffe if you look at it from the side 0 Doesn t have a spot for a rib or two little holes 0 The largest of the three types because it supports the most weight as far as vertebrae are concerned 0 Looks like a moose if you look at it from the side 0 End of the line for the major bit of the spinal cord but all of the smaller segments branch out from there Problems with the spinal column 0 Spina bifida I Somewhere the spine does not fuse fully I Becomes more dangerous the higher the gap appears along the spine because it cannot protect the neural tube I There are cases where people go through their whole lives without knowing that they have extremely mild cases of spina bifida The Ribs 0 There are 12 ribs on each side of the sternum o s 17 directly connected to the sternum with hyaline cartilage o 8 10 connected to the sternum and piggy back off of the seventh true rib in order to reach the sternum o s 11 amp 12 do not connect to the sternum at all in any way shape or form 0 They are just kind of hanging out 0 As soon as the ribs end the thoracic vertebrae end and the lumbar vertebrae begin 0 There are three parts of the sternum that you need to know Appendicular Skeleton Things to know by the end of this section of notes 1 Know the difference between the axial and appendicular skeleton 2 Know what bones make up the shoulder elbow knee and ankle joints 3 Know the difference between carpals metacarpals and phalanges of the hand 4 Be able to identify the talus cacaneous tarsals metatarsals and phalanges of the foot The Upper Limb o AKA the shoulder girdle 0 Made up of three bones clavicle scapula and humerus o Named for the humerus and the glenoid fossa I Glenoid fossa is the spot on the scapula where the head of the humerus rests 0 Anatomy generally takes two words cuts off the end of the first word and smashes an quotoquot in the middle like it s no big deal I It s just what Anatomy does 0 Has two end that basically describe what it is next to I Sternal end I Acromial end 0 One of your long bones that we talked about last week 0 Has a meduary cavity that has red and yellow bone marrow o Is made up of three bones humerus radius and ulna 0 Always by the thumb o Twists over the ulna when the forearm turns over s always by the pinky o 0 Has a quotuquot shape on the proximal end 0 Don t need to know the individual names of the carpals for now 0 Phalanx 1 o Phalanges many The Lower Limb o The Pelvic Girdle 0 Made up of the femur and the Coxa innominate 0 Side note I The reason why the coxa is also called the innominate is because the term comes from the dark ages and literally means quotno name and the thought process behind it was because they were like we will not name this bone quotthe region that we do not talk about it protects the reproductive organs and that was taboo to talk about 0 It was essentially the Voldemort of anatomy regions 0 There are many fibers around the hip joint because it supports so much weight and takes a lot of wear and tear I All of the fibers go in the same direction I There is also one tendon that connects the femur to the coxa on the inside of the synovial joint 0 The Knee O O O O 0 Made up of four bones femur patella tibia and fibula Incredibly prone to injury One of the structural points that can be damaged by a misplaced amount of pressure because it has a lot of weight on it The tibia has a lot of weight bearing I And is the larger of the two distal leg bones I Also known as the shin bone The fibula mostly keeps the ankles from going out as they are being moved Fibula is on the outside 0 The Talocrural Joint O O O O AKA the Ankle Made up of three bones talus fibula tibia two curves that connect and support another bone look at malleolus Talus is essentially the ankle bone 0 Bones of the foot 0 O OO Talus Calcaneus the heel bone I Connects to all of the muscles in your calf Need to know the talus and calcaneus in general Toes named the same way as fingers
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